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Xubin Zeng, Zhuo Wang, and Aihui Wang

al. 2003 ), CLM does the computations based on sand and clay percentages. Noah prescribes surface albedos that are variable seasonally and spatially, while CLM computes surface albedos through two-stream radiative transfer of diffuse and direct radiation at visible and near-infrared bands. Over bare soil, the effect of soil moisture on surface albedo is also considered in CLM ( Wang et al. 2005 ). In the Noah version 2.7.1 (as used in the NCEP global forecasting model), surface emissivity is

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Craig R. Ferguson, Eric F. Wood, and Raghuveer K. Vinukollu

coupling is complexly dependent on four components: 1) the quality and coverage (both spatial and temporal) of the assimilated observations; 2) the assimilation system itself, including the forward radiative transfer model for direct assimilation of raw satellite radiances (if applicable); 3) the background-assimilating AGCM; and 4) the coupled land surface model. Modeled precipitation (i.e., bias and diurnal cycle error) and related radiation/cloud forcing deficiencies serve as limiting factors in the

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Keith J. Harding and Peter K. Snyder

boundary layer (PBL) scheme ( Hong et al. 2006 ), Rapid Radiative Transfer Model (RRTM) longwave radiation scheme ( Mlawer et al. 1997 ), Dudhia shortwave radiation scheme ( Dudhia 1989 ), and fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University–National Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model (MM5) surface-layer scheme were used ( Skamarock et al. 2008 ). No cumulus parameter was employed. Depending on the model configuration, the exclusion of a cumulus parameter (CP) can result in difficulties

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Joseph A. Santanello Jr., Christa D. Peters-Lidard, Aaron Kennedy, and Sujay V. Kumar

resolution. Since this time, there have been significant upgrades to both LIS and WRF including new functionality and LSMs in LIS and additional PBLs in WRF. The development of NU-WRF now ensures that the most recent versions of LIS (currently version 6.2) and ARW-WRF (currently version 3.3) are coupled and tested, and are used exclusively for the 2006/07 simulations described in section 3b . For this study, NU-WRF has been specified with a 5-s advection time step, Ferrier microphysics, Rapid Radiative

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