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Magdalena Andres, Ruth C. Musgrave, Daniel L. Rudnick, Kristin L. Zeiden, Thomas Peacock, and Jae-Hun Park

1. Introduction Oceanic processes that have an expression in sea surface height (SSH) occur over a range of time scales. Since the early 1990s satellite altimetry has been used to examine SSH variability related to processes at intraseasonal periods such as mesoscale eddy motions ( Chelton et al. 2011 ) or baroclinic Rossby wave propagations ( Qiu and Chen 2005 ) and at longer periods, including studies of regional and global sea level rise ( Church and White 2011 ). Some higher

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Frederick T. Mayer and Oliver B. Fringer

statistically homogeneous on a regional scale and thus submit well to a spectral model ( Goff and Jordan 1988 ). This allows for calculation of the lee wave drag with the spectral linear theory of Bell (1975a , b) . However, because a significant portion of the abyssal hills have nonlinear heights ( Nikurashin et al. 2014 ), spectral linear theory is not formally valid in these regions. At the bottom of the ocean, where the background horizontal velocity U and buoyancy frequency N are nearly constant

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Hemantha W. Wijesekera, Joel C. Wesson, David W. Wang, William J. Teague, and Z. R. Hallock

1. Introduction Flow interactions over space and time with abrupt topography, such as with small-scale islands and deep ocean ridges, can significantly impact regional to large-scale ocean circulation through intense turbulent mixing, formation of mesoscale wakes and eddy shedding behind islands, submesoscale upwelling and downwelling, and generation of lee internal waves ( Baines 1995 ). Along with ocean variability due to topographic features, islands and atolls also modify the atmospheric

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Jody M. Klymak, Dhruv Balwada, Alberto Naveira Garabato, and Ryan Abernathey

. Effects on the downstream transport of different roughness parameterizations. Rough is the 5-km simulations with resolved topography included. Param (red) is the same parameterization proposed here with h = 2 a . Simulations with a quadratic (gray dashed) and linear (gray dash–dot) form drag only, approximately scaled to match the Rough simulations. 5. Discussion Here we tested a hybrid drag parameterization, Eq. (2) , and found that it improves the simulation of bottom roughness in coarse models

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Shuwen Tan, Larry J. Pratt, Dongliang Yuan, Xiang Li, Zheng Wang, Yao Li, Corry Corvianawatie, Dewi Surinati, Asep S. Budiman, and Ahmad Bayhaqi

1. Introduction The Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) is a conduit for mass, heat, and freshwater transports from the Pacific to the Indian Ocean, playing an important role in regional and global climate (e.g., Schneider 1998 ; Wajsowicz and Schneider 2001 ; Gordon 2005 ; Pandey et al. 2007 ; Yuan et al. 2011 , 2013 ). Most of the approximately 15 Sv of the throughflow is from the North Pacific Ocean ( Gordon et al. 1999 , 2003a , 2010 ; Gordon 2005 ; 1 Sv ≡ 10 6 m 3 s −1 ) and is

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Kristin L. Zeiden, Daniel L. Rudnick, and Jennifer A. MacKinnon

have been shown to generate stationary Rossby waves which are believed to inhibit boundary layer separation ( Boyer and Davies 1982 ). Because these asymmetric effects of background rotation are difficult to observe directly in the real ocean, knowledge of the signed Ro is necessary for making comparisons to these idealized studies. This study quantifies Ro both upstream and downstream of Palau and compares average properties of the currents over instances of eastward and westward flow. Island

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Jody M. Klymak

spectrum is nonlinear and not amenable to linear treatment ( Bell 1975 ). Rather, upstream blocking and downstream hydraulic effects are predicted to be important ( Baines 1995 ; Klymak et al. 2010 ), as well as an increased tendency for the flow to go around obstacles in the cross-flow direction ( Nikurashin et al. 2014 ). The importance of parameterizing drag and turbulence due to large-amplitude topography ( Nh / u 0 ≫ 1) has been long realized by the atmospheric science community (e

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Eric Kunze and Ren-Chieh Lien

( x , y ) ( Nikurashin et al. 2014 ; Trossman et al. 2015 , 2016 ), although Klymak (2018) reported that blocking and hydraulic effects from larger-scale topography ( k < f / U ) dominated near-bottom dissipation by factors of 2–3; (ii) microstructure sampling biases in a highly heterogeneous turbulence field ( Waterman et al. 2014 ; Klymak 2018 ); (iii) internal wave–wave interactions transferring energy into waves free to propagate out of the jets ( f < ω E < N ); and (iv) advection

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