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John D. Hottenstein, Guillermo E. Ponce-Campos, Julio Moguel-Yanes, and M. Susan Moran

regressions of ungrouped normalized soil moisture and normalized precipitation data to the linear regressions of grouped data with similar precipitation patterns, that is, high or low CDD and SDII. The linear regressions of the high or low CDD and SDII were tested with analysis of variance (ANOVA) to determine if the CDD and SDII term was significant, based on differences in their slopes or y intercepts. Third, the normalized CDD and SDII values were also used as continuous variables to see if they were

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Amy McNally, Gregory J. Husak, Molly Brown, Mark Carroll, Chris Funk, Soni Yatheendradas, Kristi Arsenault, Christa Peters-Lidard, and James P. Verdin

directly propagated to WRSI output values. To test if our new approach was introducing any changes to the sensitivity of WRSI values to SM estimates, we performed a sensitivity analysis. We regressed seasonal soil moisture totals against WRSI for all three products and evaluated the regression coefficients (i.e., slope). Next, we evaluated error propagation by perturbing the satellite inputs. We assume that satellite-derived rainfall has ~20% error in estimating dekadal rainfall totals ( Laws et al

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Randal D. Koster, Gregory K. Walker, Sarith P. P. Mahanama, and Rolf H. Reichle

current state of a system (e.g., snow amount, soil moisture, and climate indices), calibrated regressions are applied that transform these quantities into streamflow forecasts. The historical use of these statistical techniques is arguably a reflection of historical limitations in our ability to model accurately the physical processes that generate streamflow—in particular our ability to provide the high-resolution forcing and boundary condition data needed to support the physical modeling. The advent

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C. Albergel, W. Dorigo, R. H. Reichle, G. Balsamo, P. de Rosnay, J. Muñoz-Sabater, L. Isaksen, R. de Jeu, and W. Wagner

floods. For many applications, global- or continental-scale soil moisture maps are needed. Among the first soil moisture analysis systems used for operational NWP was the system implemented by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) in 1994 to prevent the land surface model (LSM) drifting to dry conditions in summer. Since then, major upgrades have been implemented in the land surface modeling and analysis systems of the high-resolution component of the Integrated Forecasting

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