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Paul A. Dirmeyer, Jiangfeng Wei, Michael G. Bosilovich, and David M. Mocko

) performed a global study of evaporative sources of precipitation using tracers in a global atmospheric model. Stohl and James (2004) used a dispersion model driven by reanalyses to examine a case study of moisture transport over Europe and a 1-yr global assessment. Stohl and James (2005) applied the method to diagnose oceanic moisture sources to major river basins. A variation on the tracer approach is to use stable water isotopes as the markers, a method that has been applied in both observational

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Sujay V. Kumar, Christa D. Peters-Lidard, David Mocko, Rolf Reichle, Yuqiong Liu, Kristi R. Arsenault, Youlong Xia, Michael Ek, George Riggs, Ben Livneh, and Michael Cosh

) projects. This model routes the modeled runoff from each interior grid cell to the basin outlet using a flow direction mask ( Lohmann et al. 2004 ). The routing model computes the timing of the runoff at the grid outlet and the water transport through the river network. Using a linearized version of the Saint-Venant equation, both within-grid-cell and river-routing contributions are represented with causal functions with nonnegative impulse response characteristics ( Lohmann et al. 1996 ). The water

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Kingtse C. Mo and Dennis P. Lettenmaier

drought intensified quickly ( Fig. 1 ). By May, Georgia and Alabama were in the D3–D4 category ( Fig. 2q ). The concurrence maps indicate that 90% of indices were in D2 ( Fig. 2g ) or higher, and 70% of indices were in the D3 and D4 categories at the center of drought. In summer, the lack of rainfall from tropical storms intensified the drought, which expanded northward to the Ohio Valley and northeastward to the Carolinas. The drought lowered rivers in Alabama, Georgia, and North Carolina to the

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Bart Nijssen, Shraddhanand Shukla, Chiyu Lin, Huilin Gao, Tian Zhou, Ishottama, Justin Sheffield, Eric F. Wood, and Dennis P. Lettenmaier

, 044037 , doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/7/4/044037 . Anderson, E. A. , 1973 : National Weather Service River Forecast System—Snow accumulation and ablation model. NOAA Tech. Memo. NWS HYDRO-17, 87 pp. [Available online at .] Andreadis, K. M. , and Lettenmaier D. P. , 2006 : Trends in 20th century drought over the continental United States . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 33 , L10403 , doi: 10.1029/2006GL025711 . Bohn, T. J. , Livneh B

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M. Hoerling, J. Eischeid, A. Kumar, R. Leung, A. Mariotti, K. Mo, S. Schubert, and R. Seager

surface air temperature (e.g., Madden and Williams 1978 ; Hoerling et al. 2013 ). Severe agricultural drought occurred throughout the region as affirmed by estimated soil moisture anomalies that were in the lower decile of the historical distribution ( Fig. 2d ). And, as expected from the deficient rainfall and depleted soil moisture, estimated surface runoff was also in the lower decile, especially in the western Missouri and lower Ohio River drainage basins ( Fig. 2c ). Fig. 2. Standardized

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Eric F. Wood, Siegfried D. Schubert, Andrew W. Wood, Christa D. Peters-Lidard, Kingtse C. Mo, Annarita Mariotti, and Roger S. Pulwarty

to improve objective analyses that contribute to a consistent, accurate, and reliable determination and quantification of drought—including, for example, assessments of soil moisture, river discharge, temperature anomalies, and depiction of vegetation health. Additionally, by carrying out objective historical reanalyses, a climatology for drought variables such as precipitation or soil moisture can be developed that aids in depicting current conditions within a risk framework. Finally, objective

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Jiarui Dong, Mike Ek, Dorothy Hall, Christa Peters-Lidard, Brian Cosgrove, Jeff Miller, George Riggs, and Youlong Xia

, 181 – 194 , doi:10.1016/S0034-4257(02)00095-0 . Klein, A. G. , and Barnett A. C. , 2003 : Validation of daily MODIS snow cover maps of the upper Rio Grande river basin for the 2000–2001 snow year . Remote Sens. Environ. , 86 , 162 – 176 , doi:10.1016/S0034-4257(03)00097-X . Liston, G. E. , Pielke R. A. Sr. , and Greene E. M. , 1999 : Improving first-order snow-related deficiencies in a regional climate model . J. Geophys. Res. , 104 , 19 559 – 19 567 , doi:10.1029/1999JD

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Hailan Wang, Siegfried Schubert, Randal Koster, Yoo-Geun Ham, and Max Suarez

. , and Trimble P. J. , 2001 : The Atlantic multidecadal oscillation and its relationship to rainfall and river flows in the continental U.S . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 28 , 2077 – 2080 , doi: 10.1029/2000GL012745 . Ferguson, I. M. , Dracup J. A. , Duffy P. B. , Pegion P. , and Schubert S. , 2010 : Influence of SST forcing on stochastic characteristics of simulated precipitation and drought . J. Hydrometeor. , 11 , 754 – 769 , doi: 10.1175/2009JHM1132.1 . Griffies, S. M. , and

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