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Axel Andersson, Christian Klepp, Karsten Fennig, Stephan Bakan, Hartmut Grassl, and Jörg Schulz

to 40 000 km 3 yr −1 ) ( GRDC 2009 ). The uncertainties of different runoff estimates are still in the order of 10%–20%. Additionally, other runoff sources, such as annual ice melt and groundwater flow into the ocean are estimated to be less than 10% of the river discharge ( Burnett et al. 2001 ). Comparing these values with the HOAPS global ocean freshwater flux leaves an imbalance of about 0.4 mm day −1 in the global freshwater balance. For the combined IFREMER/GPCP fields the imbalance is

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Feyera A. Hirpa, Mekonnen Gebremichael, and Thomas Hopson

regions of the world are important to explore and address the limitations in the satellite precipitation algorithms. It is also clear that the validation results need to be stratified by elevation in mountainous regions. Motivated by this, our study provides an elevation-dependent comparison of 3B42RT, CMORPH, PERSIANN, and rain gauges in a large river basin in Ethiopia that is characterized by a large range of elevation differences. 2. Study region and data a. Study region The Awash River basin, with

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M. Tugrul Yilmaz, Paul Houser, Roshan Shrestha, and Valentine G. Anantharaj

– 313 . Nijssen , B. , G. M. O’Donnell , D. P. Lettenmaier , D. Lohmann , and E. F. Wood , 2001 : Predicting the discharge of global rivers. J. Climate , 14 , 3307 – 3323 . Sorooshian , S. , K-L. Hsu , X. Gao , H. V. Gupta , B. Imam , and D. Braithwaite , 2000 : Evaluation of PERSIANN system satellite–based estimates of tropical rainfall. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 81 , 2035 – 2046 . Sun , Y. , S. Solomon , A. Dai , and R. Portmann , 2006 : How

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Meike Kühnlein, Boris Thies, Thomas Nauß, and Jörg Bendix

precipitation formation processes in continental and maritime convective clouds at nighttime. J. Appl. Meteor. , 42 , 1227 – 1233 . Levizzani , V. , 2003 : Satellite rainfall estimations: New perspectives for meteorology and climate from the EURAINSAT project. Ann. Geophys. , 46 , 363 – 372 . Levizzani , V. , F. Porcù , and F. Prodi , 1990 : Operational rainfall estimation using METEOSAT infrared imagery: An application in Italy’s Arno river basin—Its potential and drawbacks. ESA J

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Jonathan J. Gourley, Yang Hong, Zachary L. Flamig, Li Li, and Jiahu Wang

propagation. The rainfall estimates from adjacent radars are then merged onto the same 4.76-km grid as the Gauge using an inverse distance-weighting scheme. The NCEP hourly multisensor precipitation analysis, or Stage IV hereinafter, combines rainfall estimates from WSR-88D radar, rain gauges, and satellite, with quality control performed manually by NWS forecasters. The NCEP Stage IV product is a mosaic of multisensor rainfall products produced by the individual River Forecast Centers (RFCs). Additional

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