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Kristina Katsaros and Konrad J. K. Buettner

FEBRUARY 1969 KRISTINA KATSAROS AND KONRAD J. K. BUETTNER 15Influence of Rainfall on Temperature and Salinity of the Ocean Surface KRISTINA KATSAROS AND KONRAD J. ~. BUETTNERDept. of Atmospheric Sciences, University qf Washington, Seattle(Manuscript received 17 September 1968, in revised form 21 October 1968)ABSTRACT Falling rain changes sea surface conditions, because of its different salinity, different temperature

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Jeffrey M. Whiting

214JOURNAL OF CLIMATE AND APPLIED METEOROLOGYVOLUME 23The Effect of Groundwater Inflow on Evaporation from a Saline LakeJEFFREY M. WHITINGSaskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon. Saskatchewan, Canada S7N OXJ(Manuscript received 7 March 1983, in final form 24 September 1983)ABSTRACTA decade study of the hydrometeorology of Big Quill Lake in Saskatchewan, a saline prairie lake, haseffectively used remote sensing to delineate groundwater inflow. The lake covers an area of 250 square

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Kevin M. Craft and John D. Horel

1. Introduction The basin and range topography of the Bonneville terminal basin in northern Utah leads to the formation of large areas of desert playa surfaces. High reflectivity and small roughness lengths are common characteristics of saline playas ( Nicholson 2011 ). As discussed by Guo et al. (2018) , accelerating long-term warming and drying trends in semiarid interior basins of the Northern Hemisphere may be driven in part by feedback processes associated with local land-use and land

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Richard A. Anthes

. In these studies, convective rainfall appears to be associated with increases in vegetationand with variations in surface characteristics in many parts of the world on scales ranging from 10 km to largefractions of continents.A review of recent agricultural research indicates that a variety of plants that thrive in semiarid regions(some under irrigation with saline water) could be suitable for cultivation. Many of these have potentialeconomic value, which could defray or even exceed the cost of

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I. I. Schell

(Weyl, 1968) claims that adecrease in salinity in higher latitudes will lead to iceformation, and that the ice, in turn, will cause coolingand, in time, an Ice Age. In support of his hypothesis Weyl cites the increasein salinity from 1902-17 to 1920-39 and the simultaneous retreat of the ice boundary in the North AtlanticOcean, as if the increase in salinity were responsiblefor the retreat of the ice. However, a study of the airflow during the two periods (Figs. 1 and 2) indicatedthat the second

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Konrad Steffen and Ted deMaria

taken 100 m to thesouth of the camp to minimize the influence of campactivities. The results of three intense measurement pehods will be presented here. Measurements made inDecember showed erroneous results and were excludedfrom this analysis.b. Ice thickness and salinity Changes in ice thickness were determined using pullup wire gauges, following the method of Untersteiner(1961) and Schwerdtfeger (1968). The instrumenttowers were surrounded by four pull-up wire thicknessgauges. Changes in ice

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F. I. Morton

havebeen accounted for 'in an approximate way (Morton,1983b) by routing model estimates of lake-size wet surface evaporation through hypothetical heat reservoirswith delay times and storage constants related to thedepth and salinity of the lake, using a routing techniquesimilar to those used in routing water through naturalreservoirs in hydrology. Although this procedure provided reasonable agreement with water budget estimates for the ten lakes referred-to in the precedingparagraph, it proved to be

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Steven T. Fiorino, Robb M. Randall, Richard J. Bartell, Adam D. Downs, Peter C. Chu, and C. W. Fan

period 1990–2008. This dataset was created at the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) from the Global Temperature and Salinity Profile Program. Optimal spectral decomposition was required to process the raw dataset into a research-usable gridded format, as described below. 1) Global Temperature and Salinity Profile Program The Global Temperature and Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) is a joint effort of the International Oceanographic Data and Information Exchange committee (IODE) and the Joint Commission

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Clive E. Dorman

Elliott's, being a factor of 2 greater. Reed cites agreement with Jacobs (1951) estimates. These are based on a computation of theevaporation and the upper salinity structure of theocean. Jacobs rainfall estimates are a factor of 2 lessthan low atoll measurements, although his values aresimilar to Reed and Elliott's. But this general technique has been reapplied by Donguy and Henin(1976) who computed near-surface salinity in thesouthwestern equatorial Pacific. They assumed thatisland rainfall

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M. H. Smith

an air-driven"spinning-top," similar to that devised by May (1966).This system was capable of generating almost monodisperse droplets in the size range 5 to 30 um radiusdispensing up to 1 g of solution per minute. It wasvery difficult to achieve 100% relative humiditythroughout the entire experimental volume and therefore droplets of pure water would undergo considerablesize changes in the course of an experiment. The useof saline solution droplets permitted humidities ofaround 80-90% within

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