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K. Kvale, K. Zickfeld, T. Bruckner, K. J. Meissner, K. Tanaka, and A. J. Weaver

time the model is run as it makes only a small difference in the thermal profile (roughly 9 mm by 2200). Once the thermal profile is calculated, T o is plugged in to the linearized equation of state: In Eq. (A18) , ρ is density, α is a coefficient of thermal expansion (1.7 exp −4 K −1 ), β is the coefficient of saline contraction, and S is salinity. Constant salinity is assumed for simplification, and the last term drops out. Rearranging Eq. (A18) to isolate both ρ terms on one side

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Tobias Siegfried, Stefan Sobolowski, Pradeep Raj, Ram Fishman, Victor Vasquez, Kapil Narula, Upmanu Lall, and Vijay Modi

capacities for sustaining and increasing agricultural production (see also Rockstrom et al. 2007 ). They also mention the mounting concern over the central role that irrigation plays in agricultural production given 1) inadequate maintenance and development of surface water storage technologies, 2) the widespread regional depletion of aquifers in many countries, 3) ongoing soil salinization in irrigated lands, 4) significant pollution of surface and subsurface waters, and 5) changes in the regional

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Melissa L. Finucane, Rachel Miller, L. Kati Corlew, Victoria W. Keener, Maxine Burkett, and Zena Grecni

implications of climate change for runoff, pollutant loads, salinity, and water supply (see Table 10 ). Table 9. At what geographic scale is information about climate variability and change most relevant when you make decisions ( n = 43)? Note that because of missing data ( n = 2 for each item), the percentages will add to less than 100. Table 10. What type of information would be useful in supporting the decisions you or your agency/organization makes ( n = 43)? Note that because of missing data ( n

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Joseph T. Ripberger, Makenzie J. Krocak, Wesley W. Wehde, Jinan N. Allan, Carol Silva, and Hank Jenkins-Smith

-Morris 2010 ). This variety in studied populations and testing procedures has made previous assessments of tornado warning comprehension fairly inconsistent. Balluz et al. (2000) presents the most optimistic findings; over 95% of survey participants in Clark and Saline County, Arkansas, understood the difference between tornado watches and warnings. A study in Austin, Texas, finds similarly that 90% of people can identify the difference between a watch and a warning ( Schultz et al. 2010 ); however, a

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Ayansina Ayanlade and Margaret Olusolape Jegede

availability and future cereal production in China . Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. , 135 , 58 – 69 , doi: 10.1016/j.agee.2009.08.015 . Young, I. , Gropp K. , Fazil A. , and Smith B. A. , 2015 : Knowledge synthesis to support risk assessment of climate change impacts on food and water safety: A case study of the effects of water temperature and salinity on Vibrio parahaemolyticus in raw oysters and harvest waters . Food Res. Int. , 68 , 86 – 93 , doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2014.06.035 . Zhang, T

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Peter H. Gleick

Assad regime made great strides in improving access to water, building water infrastructure that brought benefits to rural communities, and expanded agricultural production. But she also notes that the benefits of the expansion of irrigated agriculture in the Levant also produced some unanticipated costs, including a worsening of pressures on local water shortages in rural areas and salinization of farmland. These effects and other coupled human–environmental factors, such as land development

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Ross N. Hoffman, Peter Dailey, Susanna Hopsch, Rui M. Ponte, Katherine Quinn, Emma M. Hill, and Brian Zachry

evaporation. Movement of water substance from land to ocean further impacts sea level via gravitational self-attraction and loading (e.g., Mitrovica et al. 2009 ). Changes in density. Water density changes are often referred to as the steric response and include both temperature (thermosteric) and salinity (halosteric) effects. Waters from land reservoirs that increase the mass of the ocean also reduce its salinity and density. Changes in geometry. Relative land motions occur because of glacial

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Steve Rayner

Murray mouth have effectively converted the estuary to a freshwater system. The barrage management system is currently being questioned due to problems of salinity and acid sulfate soils ( Kingsford et al. 2011 ). The area is a Ramsar site and has also been the subject of considerable tension between the State and the indigenous Ngarrindjeri, who call for closer attention to humanity’s life-sustaining connections with the river and estuary to promote a focus on rivers as a source of water and of life

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Carolina Neri and Víctor Magaña

factors make RHAs vulnerable to meteorological drought (e.g., Breña 2004 ; Jiménez Cisneros et al. 2010 ), including increasing demands for water that frequently exceed water availability; overexploited aquifers and salinity intrusion in coastal aquifers; low wastewater treatment levels; low water prices relative to its actual economic value; low agricultural water productivity; and insufficient, obsolete, or inoperative water infrastructure. Various water managers in the RHAs consider these factors

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Jason A. Otkin, Tonya Haigh, Anthony Mucia, Martha C. Anderson, and Christopher Hain

Salinity ( Kerr et al. 2012 ) and Soil Moisture Active Passive ( Entekhabi et al. 2010 ) are used to estimate the near-surface soil moisture content (0–5 cm) over the entire globe, albeit with much coarser horizontal resolution (~30–50 km) than vegetation datasets derived using visible and infrared satellite imagery. Recent advancements in land surface modeling and data assimilation have also led to the development of datasets that depict soil moisture content over multiple soil layers that include

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