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Tosiyuki Nakaegawa

-pixel agreement numbers are higher in several specific latitudes where large open waters are located: the Caspian and Aral Seas and the Great Lakes at about 45°N and Lake Victoria and the Amazon and Congo Rivers near the equator. d. Geographical distribution In this subsection, we show the geographical distribution of the per-pixel agreement numbers by focusing on selected areas for each water-related land cover type. 1) Snow and ice As mentioned above, the ice sheets in Antarctica and Greenland are

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Sante Laviola, Agata Moscatello, Mario Marcello Miglietta, Elsa Cattani, and Vincenzo Levizzani

Mediterranean basin. The Alps are responsible for such deflections for the Northern Atlantic systems and the Atlas Mountains for the southern ones. These systems transit over the warm Mediterranean and western Europe, and find favorable conditions for cyclogenesis over the Western Mediterranean ( Buzzi and Tibaldi 1978 ). Also, Mediterranean disturbances frequently develop as a consequence of the interaction of an unusually deep upper-tropospheric trough and cold air with the relative warmth of the sea

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Paul A. Dirmeyer

gauge aerodynamic properties from around the world ( Motoya et al. 2002 ). Great care was also taken to ensure that during the regridding, meteorological data were not mapped from sea to land, since land–sea masks did not align perfectly among reanalysis and ISLSCP grids. The basic approach was the same as GSWP-1: 3-h reanalysis fields were scaled so their monthly means agreed with observationally based datasets. Additionally, temperature and surface pressure were adjusted to account for the

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