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Donghai Zheng, Rogier van der Velde, Zhongbo Su, Martijn J. Booij, Arjen Y. Hoekstra, and Jun Wen

. In the latest version (version 3.4.1) of Noah (N3.4), seasonal values of z 0m are calculated based on GVF, and the Zilitinkevich (1995) empirical coefficient C zil is computed as a function of canopy height via z 0m ( Chen and Zhang 2009 ) using a relationship derived from 12 AmeriFlux datasets collected over a variety of land covers and climate regimes. Similar modifications have been proposed recently by Z12 to improve the cold bias in the daytime T sfc simulation over the arid

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Haolu Shang, Li Jia, and Massimo Menenti

canopy. To obtain the fractional area of WSS and standing water for seasonal vegetation–covered areas in temperate zones, we simplified the zero-order radiative transfer model ( Kirdiashev et al. 1979 ; Wigneron et al. 1993 ) to retrieve the polarized effective emissivity difference from PDBT. The soil water saturation has a quasi-linear relationship with its PEED. We found that the fractional area of WSS and standing water can be represented by the soil water saturation, taking the spatial

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Rafael Pimentel, Javier Herrero, Yijian Zeng, Zhongbo Su, and María J. Polo

evolution is made by using simple empirical relationships between the snowmelt flux and selected meteorological variables ( Kustas et al. 1994 ). However, in these areas, the marked annual, seasonal, and even weekly variability of temperature, wind, and rainfall make this a difficult approach to apply in practice, and energy and mass balance equations are usually needed to capture these highly variable conditions ( Anderson 1976 ). Many physically based point models for the mass and energy balance in

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