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Gerald M. Heymsfield, Lin Tian, Andrew J. Heymsfield, Lihua Li, and Stephen Guimond

flight line, so these differences should be noted in subsequent discussion. LeMone et al. (1994) examined the effects of filtering on their vertical velocity data to identify updrafts and downdrafts and their conclusions do not seem to recommend filtering. b. Convection cases Table 1 lists various NASA field campaigns from 1995 to 2005 during which the EDOP radar on the ER-2 flew above strong convection. These campaigns cover a variety of oceanic and land regions. Further information on the

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Zhuo Wang, M. T. Montgomery, and T. J. Dunkerton

grid in the high-resolution control experiment in which convection is resolved on grid scale explicitly. The distribution of the convective precipitation ( Fig. 2b ) has a pattern similar to the distribution of a high precipitation rate ( Fig. 2a ), which suggests that it is the major contributor to a high precipitation rate. Figure 2b shows also that stratiform precipitation covers a much larger area than convective precipitation. Although convection is not limited to the pouch, organized

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Robert Rogers

that contains prognostic equations for cloud water (ice), rainwater (snow), and hail, and allows for the existence of supercooled water ( Lin et al. 1983 , Tao and Simpson 1989 ). The version of the Goddard scheme used here includes graupel instead of hail, as in Braun and Tao (2000) . This scheme has been used in many tropical cyclone simulations, at grid lengths ranging from 1.3 to 81 km (e.g., Liu et al. 1997 ; Braun and Tao 2000 ; Davis and Bosart 2002 ; Rogers et al. 2007 ). This method

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Andrew J. Heymsfield, Aaron Bansemer, Gerald Heymsfield, and Alexandre O. Fierro

1. Introduction Cirrus clouds at a given time cover about 20% of tropical latitudes and contribute significantly to regional and global radiation budgets ( Rossow and Schiffer 1999 ). Optically thick tropical cirrus are produced primarily through deep convection and generate as much as 25% of the earth’s net cloud radiative forcing ( Hartmann et al. 1992 ). The primary impact of thin versus thick cirrus is on the shortwave energy budget, and the albedo of these ice clouds depends on their

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Chanh Q. Kieu and Da-Lin Zhang

. Speculating on the possibility of the formation of a TC within this active area, the TCSP team conducted several experiments with the NASA ER-2 and NOAA P-3 mission aircraft during the pregenesis stage (15–16 July). Even though at many instances the aircraft captured several midlevel MCVs and deep convective towers in the ITCZ, the area covered by the aircraft (5°–11°N, 91°–85°W) was nonetheless southeast of the actual region where Eugene developed (9°–14°N, 104°–99°W). In addition, the precursor for

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