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Lynda E. Chambers, Roan D. Plotz, Siosinamele Lui, Faapisa Aiono, Tile Tofaeono, David Hiriasia, Lloyd Tahani, ‘Ofa Fa’anunu, Seluvaia Finaulahi, and Albert Willy

1. Introduction For many communities, understanding western scientific terms of climate variability and climate change can be difficult ( McNaught et al. 2014 ). In some locations, including many communities in the Pacific Ocean region, weather, climate variability, extremes, and climate change are words and concepts that may not have a specific equivalent term in local language and may not be well understood nor easily communicated ( Leonard et al. 2013 ; McMillen et al. 2014 ; Malsale et al

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Savin S. Chand, Lynda E. Chambers, Mike Waiwai, Philip Malsale, and Elisabeth Thompson

when high-resolution, country-specific forecasts are freely available from international agencies such as NCEP ( Saha et al. 2010 ), accessing them may be hampered in PICs due to slow Internet connections. In addition, for PICs where seasonal forecasts are issued, for example, by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology’s Predictive Ocean–Atmosphere Model (POAMA; e.g., Cottrill et al. 2013 ), the spatial resolutions of such models are often too coarse to resolve small-scale phenomena. A lack of

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Mimi Stith, Alessandra Giannini, John del Corral, Susana Adamo, and Alex de Sherbinin

grassland in bright green, between the 200- and 500-mm isohyets. In the West African area of interest, it covers northern Senegal and southern Mauritania, central Mali, northern Burkina Faso, and the southern tier of Niger. However, in this paper we are interested in environmental change in the broader region of gradation from shrubland/grassland in the north, through cropland, to savanna in the south, encompassing the latitudinal range between 12° and 18°N, between the 200- and 800-mm isohyets. Annual

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Susan A. Crate

and project. 3. Case study a. Background To provide background for this analysis, I focus here on specific details of Sakha land tenure and the place of water in the Sakha ecosystem, since both are key to understanding the issues related to ‘water in mind’. Sakha are relative newcomers to their subarctic homeland, considering that their Turkic ancestors transmigrated from central Asia to southern Siberia circa tenth century, then up the Lena River to their present inhabitance in several waves

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Sarah E. Vaughn

projects, as vulnerability transforms the sociomaterial arrangements of the ordinary. Guyana is particularly vulnerable to climate change, with 300 000 people, or roughly 30% of the population, residing in the coastal capital city Georgetown. Some areas are between 2 and 6 feet below sea level, bounded by a seawall and an intricate grid of canals that drain rainwater and groundwater into the Atlantic Ocean. With the proximity of the sea, a torrential biannual wet season, and the sodden realities of

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Randy A. Peppler

.g., Oklahoma Board of Agriculture 2016 ). Fig . 1. Key sites of interviews and participant-observation experiences (from Peppler 2012 ). Warmer than normal temperatures, sometimes significantly warmer, have been recorded in southwestern Oklahoma since the mid-1990s, which followed a prolonged period of slightly below temperatures that commenced in the late 1950s [information for this temperature and precipitation discussion comes from the South Central Climate Science Center (2013) , the Southern Climate

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Alison M. Meadow, Daniel B. Ferguson, Zack Guido, Alexandra Horangic, Gigi Owen, and Tamara Wall

and decision making, and address some of the most urgent environmental challenges of our time. Acknowledgments The authors thank three anonymous reviewers who provided excellent feedback and suggestions on this paper. This work was supported by the Department of the Interior Southwest Climate Science Center Award G13AC00326 and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Climate Program Office through Grant NA12OAR4310124 with the Climate Assessment for the Southwest program at the

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Karen Pennesi

: The principal factor that we have today is the El Niño event which is an event in the Pacific Ocean in which the water is hotter than normal this event it alters the circulation of winds at a global level making the air descend over Ceará impeding the formation of rain clouds REFERENCES Adger, W. N. , Kelly P. M. , Winkels A. , Huy L. Q. , and Locke C. , 2002 : Migration, remittances, livelihood trajectories, and social resilience . Ambio , 31 , 358 – 366 . Bucholtz, M. , and Hall

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