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Kenneth G. Hughes, James N. Moum, and Emily L. Shroyer

1. Introduction Diurnal warm layers (DWLs) form when strong solar radiation and weak-to-moderate winds allow near-surface stratification to develop. In the tropics DWLs appear around 0800 local time (LT), which is 1–2 h after sunrise, as the surface heat flux changes from net ocean cooling to net warming ( Martin 1985 ; Fairall et al. 1996 ; Moulin et al. 2018 ). Heat and momentum trapped in this stratified layer cause sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies of O (0.1–1°C) and near

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Kenneth G. Hughes, James N. Moum, and Emily L. Shroyer

constant, U cr changes by only 0.3 m s −1 for latitudes between 1° and 60° and changes by only 0.5 m s −1 for choices of t between 3 and 7 h. A detailed examination of the sensitivity of Eq. (10) in Fig. 12 shows that within a wide range of plausible input values, U cr is within ±30% of 2.0 m s −1 . Given this limited sensitivity, while also recognizing that variability exists, we consider the 2 m s −1 threshold as a convenient rule of thumb, especially for the tropics, where day length

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