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Xi Chen, Yongqin David Chen, and Zhicai Zhang

, respectively; E p is the potential evaporation calculated using a Penman-based energy balance approach that includes a stability-dependent aerodynamic resistance ( Mahrt and Ek 1984 ). Here E T is calculated by where B c is a function of canopy resistance, W c is intercepted canopy water content estimated from the budget for intercepted canopy water, S is the maximum canopy capacity, and n = 0.5. Finally, the third component of ET, E c , can be estimated by The budget for

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Richard G. Lawford, John Roads, Dennis P. Lettenmaier, and Phillip Arkin

characterization of the major components of the energy and water balance at global and regional scales. Analysis of water and energy budgets has relied on satellites and in situ data, as well as reanalysis models. In this special issue, Trenberth et al. (2007) provide comprehensive estimates of the water budget based on the 40-yr ECMWF Re-Analysis (ERA-40) data as well as other datasets. They identify geographical areas where ERA-40 overestimates evaporation and precipitation and describe the limitations in

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Xia Zhang, Shu Fen Sun, and Yongkang Xue

freezing and thawing processes. These processes change the thermal and hydraulic properties of soil, such as volumetric heat capacity, thermal conductivity, and hydraulic conductivity, because volumetric heat capacity of ice is half that of liquid water and thermal conductivity of ice is about 4 times that of liquid water. Changes in these properties definitely affect the surface water and energy balances. Studies have shown that proper frozen soil schemes help improve land surface and climate model

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Ana M. B. Nunes and John O. Roads

on account of the continuous interaction between the atmospheric and the land surface models. We examine here a climate analysis of the coupled land surface scheme response to this model-adjusted precipitation, focusing initially on the impact on the surface water budget terms. Because the continuous assimilation of the precipitation produces changes in the surface radiation fluxes by modifying the surface albedo and cloud distribution, which is directly related to the changes in the moisture

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Kevin E. Trenberth, Lesley Smith, Taotao Qian, Aiguo Dai, and John Fasullo

: The Scientific Basis . Cambridge University Press, 881 pp . Karl, T. R. , and Trenberth K. E. , 2003 : Modern global climate change. Science , 302 , 1719 – 1723 . 10.1126/science.1090228 Kiehl, J. T. , and Trenberth K. E. , 1997 : Earth’s annual global mean energy budget. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 78 , 197 – 208 . 10.1175/1520-0477(1997)078<0197:EAGMEB>2.0.CO;2 Korzun, V. I. , 1978 : World Water Balance and Water Resources of the Earth . Studies and Reports in Hydrology

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J. Li, X. Gao, and S. Sorooshian

hydrologic models that can accurately assess the basin’s water budget components and their variability at space and time scales. Many previous studies that include the upper Rio Grande basin have used the coupled atmosphere–land surface regional climate model (RCM) to analyze the hydroclimatic characteristics of the western mountainous region. These studies have addressed regional climate regimes ( Giorgi and Bates 1989 ; Giorgi et al. 1993 , 1994 ; Anderson et al. 2004 ; Xu et al. 2004 ; Kim and

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Yefim L. Kogan, Zena N. Kogan, and David B. Mechem

aircraft data from the Second Dynamics and Chemistry of Marine Stratocumulus (DYCOMS-II) field project to demonstrate that drizzle can be an important term in the water budget for marine stratocumulus. Austin et al. (1995) previously showed that local rain rates can be a significant fraction of the surface hydrologic balance—as much as 4–5 times larger than the local surface moisture flux. Drizzle is also an important component of the hydrologic cycle on climate scales, and an intercomparison of

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Jinwon Kim and Hyun-Suk Kang

; Soong and Kim 1996 ; Kim 1997 ; Chung et al. 1998 ; Neiman et al. 2002 ; Kim and Lee 2003 ; Grubišić et al. 2005 ). Extreme elevation changes in the Sierra Nevada further complicate the regional water cycle through their influence on the local snow budget and cloud formation ( Kim 2001 ; Kim et al. 2006 ). Among these orographic effects, the low-level wind disturbances induced by these mountain ranges play the most fundamental role in determining the precipitation distribution in California

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Song Yang, S-H. Yoo, R. Yang, K. E. Mitchell, H. van den Dool, and R. W. Higgins

2004 ). Soil moisture interacts with the overlying atmosphere through surface energy and water balances, and the amount of soil moisture strongly influences the degree of heat and moisture exchange between the land and the atmosphere ( Qu et al. 1998 ; Dirmeyer et al. 2000 ; Timbal et al. 2002 ; Gutowski et al. 2004 ; Zhu and Liang 2005 ). As pointed out by Dirmeyer et al. (1999) , soil moisture also determines the partitioning of land surface heat flux between sensible and latent components

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Guoxiong Wu, Yimin Liu, Qiong Zhang, Anmin Duan, Tongmei Wang, Rijin Wan, Xin Liu, Weiping Li, Zaizhi Wang, and Xiaoyun Liang

observation networks for the two experiments cover much of the TP platform. Although many important features concerning the thermal state and the energy balance on the TP have been revealed, not much is related to the circulations and monsoon. Results from this study show that in order to better understand the impacts of the energy state over the TP on the water cycle associated with the A–A monsoon, we need to pay more attention to the energy state on the sloping surface of the TP, particularly on its

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