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Takuya Kawabata, Tohru Kuroda, Hiromu Seko, and Kazuo Saito

-generation Pennsylvania State University–National Center for Atmospheric Research (PSU–NCAR) Mesoscale Model (MM5; Dudhia 1993 ) and investigated the impact of precipitable water vapor (PWV) derived from global positioning system (GPS) data on predictions of mesoscale convective systems (MCSs). However, in their system, the horizontal grid spacing was 40 km and cumulus convection was parameterized. Thus, local heavy rainfall was not targeted. The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) initiated its mesoscale 4DVAR system

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Steven J. Greybush, Eugenia Kalnay, Takemasa Miyoshi, Kayo Ide, and Brian R. Hunt

is 18 h for temperature and vorticity, and 9 h for divergence, with an additional 12 h applied at the top level (representing the stratosphere). There is also vertical diffusion that simulates shallow convection in regions with conditional instability, as well as water vapor and static energy vertical diffusion ( Molteni 2003 ). Frequency damping with a Robert–Asselin filter (with filter parameter equal to 0.05) is included in the SPEEDY model to suppress the spurious computational mode. Amezcua

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Zhiyong Meng and Fuqing Zhang

ensemble (EnKF_m; solid red) to account for model error originating from physical parameterization schemes on the performance of a WRF-EnKF in comparison to a single-physics ensemble (EnKF_s; dashed red,), 3DVar (solid blue), and FNL_GFS (solid black) in terms of month-averaged RMSEs of 12-h forecast of (a) horizontal wind speed, (b) temperature, and (c) water vapor mixing ratio for the entire month of June 2003 [adapted from Meng and Zhang (2008b) ]. e. Sampling error, covariance inflation, and

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