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Daniel J. Cecil and Sayak K. Biswas

nadir trace directly beneath the aircraft ( Uhlhorn and Black 2003 ; Uhlhorn et al. 2007 ; Klotz and Uhlhorn 2014 ). The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) is an experimental four-channel, C-band, synthetic thinned array radiometer designed to map ocean surface wind speeds in hurricanes. Wind speed retrievals from HIRAD take advantage of the fact that the C-band emissivity of the ocean surface increases with increasing foam coverage, which results from wave breaking ( Nordberg et al. 1971

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James D. Doyle, Jonathan R. Moskaitis, Joel W. Feldmeier, Ronald J. Ferek, Mark Beaubien, Michael M. Bell, Daniel L. Cecil, Robert L. Creasey, Patrick Duran, Russell L. Elsberry, William A. Komaromi, John Molinari, David R. Ryglicki, Daniel P. Stern, Christopher S. Velden, Xuguang Wang, Todd Allen, Bradford S. Barrett, Peter G. Black, Jason P. Dunion, Kerry A. Emanuel, Patrick A. Harr, Lee Harrison, Eric A. Hendricks, Derrick Herndon, William Q. Jeffries, Sharanya J. Majumdar, James A. Moore, Zhaoxia Pu, Robert F. Rogers, Elizabeth R. Sanabia, Gregory J. Tripoli, and Da-Lin Zhang

High-resolution observations of Hurricanes Patricia, Joaquin, and Marty in 2015 provide new insight into tropical cyclone structure and intensity change as part of the Tropical Cyclone Intensity field program. Accurate prediction of tropical cyclone (TC) intensity remains one of the great challenges in atmospheric science today. Previous research programs and field campaigns have focused on processes in the boundary layer, midtroposphere and convection, large-scale environment, and ocean mixed

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Peter Black, Lee Harrison, Mark Beaubien, Robert Bluth, Roy Woods, Andrew Penny, Robert W. Smith, and James D. Doyle

humidity during descent. Surface winds from AMSU and ASCAT satellite sensors near 0000 UTC 25 June, about 3 h prior to the sonde deployments (not shown), indicate that surface winds along the DC-8 flight track were between 7 and 10 m s −1 . This was, once again, a strong enough wind to produce some limited whitecapping from breaking waves, mixing the ocean upper layer and minimizing differences between skin and bulk SST. The fast-fall sondes traveled only 3.5–4.0 km to the north and northeast

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T. Ghosh and T. N. Krishnamurti

nonlinear interaction for wind-wave spectra using ANN was examined by Tolman et al. (2005) . They found that their neural network–based interaction approximation provided reasonable results with a limitation of integration to models. Krasnoplsky et al. (2005) have developed a hybrid environmental numerical model by combining a deterministic model and an ANN model with improved results. Application of ANN in the estimation of ocean mixed layer depth was studied by Swain et al. (2006) . Jain et al

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Patrick Duran and John Molinari

convective maximum overnight and in the early morning, and a convective minimum in the afternoon, radiative heating tendencies are a natural suspect in its evolution. The idealized simulations of Navarro and Hakim (2016) implicate periodic oscillations of upper-level radiative heating in the evolution of the TC diurnal cycle. Their results exhibit characteristics of an inertia–gravity wave response with an outward-propagating horizontal phase speed of 9.8 m s −1 , which is consistent with the outward

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Jonathan Martinez, Michael M. Bell, Robert F. Rogers, and James D. Doyle

( Rogers et al. 2017 , their Fig. 1), which contributed to a 48-h intensity forecast error of 105 kt (1 kt ≈ 0.51 m s −1 ; Kimberlain et al. 2016 ). In this study, we utilize high-resolution observations collected during the Office of Naval Research (ONR) Tropical Cyclone Intensity experiment (TCI; Doyle et al. 2017 ) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Intensity Forecasting Experiment (IFEX; Rogers et al. 2006 , 2013b ) to examine Hurricane Patricia’s structural

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T. Connor Nelson, Lee Harrison, and Kristen L. Corbosiero

). If there is sufficient energy provided to the TC from the ocean, the cyclone can resist the weakening effects of shear and maintain its strength or intensify (e.g., Black et al. 2002 ). As strong updrafts are often located near the radius of maximum wind (RMW; Black et al. 1994 ; Rogers et al. 2013 ; Stern et al. 2016 ) or just inside the RMW ( Jorgensen et al. 1985 ; Marks et al. 2008 ), they can also be associated with intensification following RMW contraction ( Stern et al. 2015

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Robert G. Nystrom and Fuqing Zhang

between large-scale forcing (e.g., rising branch of the Madden–Julian oscillation and deep convection coupled with a Central American gyre) and mesoscale processes including a localized gap wind event ( Kimberlain et al. 2016 ; Bosart et al. 2017 ). Patricia reached tropical storm intensity 18 h after becoming a tropical depression, eventually becoming a hurricane 24 h later, near 0000 UTC 22 October. At this time, Patricia was located in a very favorable environment with anomalously warm ocean

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Russell L. Elsberry, Eric A. Hendricks, Christopher S. Velden, Michael M. Bell, Melinda Peng, Eleanor Casas, and Qingyun Zhao

resolution, the SCDI–NAVGEM analysis provided an excellent intensity forecast to 36 h in terms of both the large magnitude and the constant trend. The upscaling of the SCDI analysis to NAVGEM also resulted in a better 24-h forecast of the inner-core surface winds and the size of the vortex (here the 18 m s −1 winds), which should lead to a better ocean surface wave forecast (not shown). This combination of a more accurate track, intensity, and vortex surface wind distribution is important for warnings

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Patrick Duran and John Molinari

of the background environment. More recent literature (e.g., Wirth 2003 ) has noted that strong, shallow temperature inversions immediately above the cold-point tropopause are a common feature in the tropics, now known as the tropopause inversion layer (TIL). On the planetary scale, TIL formation and maintenance has been tied to planetary wave dynamics ( Grise et al. 2010 ) and vertical gradients of radiative heating across the tropopause ( Randel et al. 2007 ), but the relative contributions of

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