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Jinwoong Yoo, Joseph A. Santanello Jr., Marshall Shepherd, Sujay Kumar, Patricia Lawston, and Andrew M. Thomas

was favored by warm SST and the vortex growth within the ER wave that spun off from the ITCZ. Fig . 6. The 30-km grid resolution ECMWF ERA5 reanalysis of TCW superimposed by 500- and 850-hPa wind vectors over Australia as well as the Pacific and Indian Oceans during the TC Kelvin (top) at 2000 UTC 17 Feb and (bottom) at 1100 UTC 19 Feb, respectively. Fig . 7. As in Fig. 6 , but for mean vertically integrated moisture divergence superimposed by 500-hPa wind vectors. Figure 8 shows time series of

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David A. Lavers, Shaun Harrigan, and Christel Prudhomme

modeled freshwater flux from the land to the ocean. The resulting reduced ocean salinity then in turn could affect the ocean circulation and degrade ocean–atmosphere interactions. It has been previously found in a project—named the Benefits of dynamically modeled river discharge input for ocean and coupled atmosphere–land–ocean systems ( Mercator Ocean 2020 )—that when coupling the land and the ocean with the GloFAS-ERA5 river discharge reanalysis, a large degradation was seen in ocean modeling skill

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David A MacLeod, Rutger Dankers, Richard Graham, Kiswendsida Guigma, Luke Jenkins, Martin C. Todd, Augustine Kiptum, Mary Kilavi, Andrew Njogu, and Emmah Mwangi

with extensive flood loss and damage from exceptionally wet seasons. During the “long rains” season of 2018 flooding across Kenya caused the displacement of 300 000 people ( OCHA 2018 ), shortly followed by the “short rains” October–December season flooding of 2019, associated with a strong Indian Ocean dipole event ( Doi et al. 2020 ; Wainwright et al. 2020 ). Anomalous wet conditions persisted across East Africa through to May 2020 resulting in hundreds of deaths from flood and landslides and

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Allison B. Marquardt Collow, Haiden Mersiovsky, and Michael G. Bosilovich

extreme precipitation events, the anomalously low pressure in the Gulf of Alaska extends vertically into the middle troposphere, which is not necessarily the case for all ARs. A jet streak at 250 hPa is also located directly over the region during extreme precipitation events, as opposed to southwest, over the Pacific Ocean. Despite not being discussed here, Rossby wave breaking is an important mechanism for AR-induced extreme precipitation events ( Ryoo et al. 2013 ; Payne and Magnusdottir 2014

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Alyssa M. Stansfield, Kevin A. Reed, Colin M. Zarzycki, Paul A. Ullrich, and Daniel R. Chavas

) grid support in CAM allows for high-resolution grid spacing over an area of interest, in this case the North Atlantic basin, and does not require nearly as much computational resources as traditional global models run at high resolutions since the high resolution is not required over the entire globe ( Zarzycki et al. 2014 , 2015 ). Since TCs are localized to certain ocean basins and their representation in models is dependent on grid spacing, they are ideal phenomena to study with VR. In CAM

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Trent W. Ford, Steven M. Quiring, Chen Zhao, Zachary T. Leasor, and Christian Landry

.25° horizontal resolution. We use the ESA-CCI dataset in this study instead of an individual platform such as Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP; Entekhabi et al. 2010 ) or Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS L3; Kerr et al. 2010 ) because of their relatively short data records (~5 years and ~11 years, respectively). ESA-CCI provides daily soil moisture observations in units of volumetric water content (m 3 m −3 ). The Noah soil moisture dataset, which is part of the National Land Data Assimilation

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Ayumi Fujisaki-Manome, Greg E. Mann, Eric J. Anderson, Philip Y. Chu, Lindsay E. Fitzpatrick, Stanley G. Benjamin, Eric P. James, Tatiana G. Smirnova, Curtis R. Alexander, and David M. Wright

.1029/95JC02554 . 10.1029/95JC02554 Mellor , G. L. , and T. Yamada , 1982 : Development of a turbulent closure model for geophysical fluid problems . Rev. Geophys. , 20 , 851 – 875 , https://doi.org/10.1029/RG020i004p00851 . 10.1029/RG020i004p00851 Mellor , G. L. , and A. Blumberg , 2004 : Wave breaking and ocean surface layer thermal response . J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 34 , 693 – 698 , https://doi.org/10.1175/2517.1 . 10.1175/2517.1 Minder , J. R. , W. M. Bartolini , C. Spence

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Joel R. Norris, F. Martin Ralph, Reuben Demirdjian, Forest Cannon, Byron Blomquist, Christopher W. Fairall, J. Ryan Spackman, Simone Tanelli, and Duane E. Waliser

forced upslope due to coastal orography ( Ralph et al. 2006 ; Neiman et al. 2011 ). The importance of ARs to water supply and flood danger has motivated observational campaigns to understand the processes that increase and decrease IWV. Previous observational campaigns (e.g., Neiman et al. 2014 , 2016 ) investigated ARs over the northeastern Pacific Ocean using in situ aircraft observations and dropsondes. While satellites can report the spatial distribution of IWV, only in situ measurements can

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Yafang Zhong, Jason A. Otkin, Martha C. Anderson, and Christopher Hain

through use of lead–lag correlation analysis, as discussed in the next section. c. Lead–lag correlation analysis Lead–lag correlation analysis is widely used in the study of ocean–atmosphere coupling to help identify the driving mechanisms. For example, the largely symmetric correlations of monthly wind and sea surface temperature (SST) with respect to the lags indicate essentially two-way interactions in the tropics ( Lian et al. 2018 ); whereas in the extratropics, the much heavier loading at wind

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Alejandro Hermoso, Victor Homar, and Arnau Amengual

this time, the trough was already cut off from the main synoptic wave and continued advancing southward over Algeria, where it remained nearly stationary on 12 and 13 September ( Fig. 2a ). Fig . 2. ECMWF analyses valid at 1200 UTC 12 Sep 2019 of (a) geopotential (m 2 s −2 ; solid line), temperature (°C; dashed line) at 500 hPa, and 250-hPa potential vorticity (PVU; shaded) and (b) sea level pressure (hPa; solid line) and temperature (°C; dashed line) at 850 hPa. At low levels, the situation on 10

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