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Man-Li C. Wu, Oreste Reale, Siegfried D. Schubert, Max J. Suarez, and Chris D. Thorncroft

effects of convection are somewhat taken into account and may be manifest in a modification of the wind field and, thus, vorticity itself, but it is not possible to separate the two. We expect that the higher-resolution analyses may have much higher values of vorticity associated with shear, large-scale convective systems, and the overall representation of tropical weather systems. Despite the differences in resolution, all reanalyses (though less evident in NCEP-R2) show an area of negative K

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Yonghong Yi, John S. Kimball, Lucas A. Jones, Rolf H. Reichle, and Kyle C. McDonald

Montana (UM)] daily air temperature retrievals and daily observations from the global World Meteorological Organization (WMO) weather station network ( Fig. 1a ); the WMO observations were also used to evaluate the accuracy of VPD from GEOS-4 and MERRA. The Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) surface radiation budget (SRB) dataset and daily observations from a variety of in situ stations ( Fig. 1b ) were employed to evaluate solar radiation from GEOS-4 and MERRA. Surface soil moisture

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Franklin R. Robertson and Jason B. Roberts

heating and moistening increments, there is the implicit effect of momentum field forcing. The d(gradV 975 )dt-ana provides some sense of how forcing of low-level convergence is acting to alter the accumulation of moisture, low-level vertical velocity, and rainfall. The negative correlation with precipitation anomalies over the tropics in Figs. 12 and 13 shows important systematic modification of the low-level circulation to increase the amplitude of precipitation anomalies. We repeated this

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