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Adrian M. Tompkins and Laura Feudale

. 1997 ; Eltahir 1998 ), extratropical intrusions ( Roca et al. 2005 ), cloud and aerosol radiative forcing ( Tompkins et al. 2005a ), the African and tropical easterly jets ( Cook 1999 ; Thorncroft et al. 2003 ), and mesoscale organized phenomena such as squall lines and African easterly waves ( Albignat and Reed 1980 ; Diongue et al. 2002 ; Grist 2002 ; Fink and Reiner 2003 ; Mekonnen et al. 2006 ). Representing these interactions poses a particularly demanding challenge for dynamical

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Anna Agustí-Panareda, Anton Beljaars, Carla Cardinali, Iliana Genkova, and Chris Thorncroft

radiosondes and dropsondes are also provided to 4DVAR, and wind profiles from sonde pilot balloons are available as well. However, a significant number of the pilot balloon winds are not used because of their inconsistent quality. Meteosat atmospheric motion vectors (AMVs) from cloud and water vapor feature tracking processed by the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) are assimilated over the AMMA region with stringent restrictions in the lower and mid

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Françoise Guichard, Nicole Asencio, Christophe Peugeot, Olivier Bock, Jean-Luc Redelsperger, Xuefeng Cui, Matthew Garvert, Benjamin Lamptey, Emiliano Orlandi, Julia Sander, Federico Fierli, Miguel Angel Gaertner, Sarah C. Jones, Jean-Philippe Lafore, Andrew Morse, Mathieu Nuret, Aaron Boone, Gianpaolo Balsamo, Patricia de Rosnay, Bertrand Decharme, Philip P. Harris, and J.-C. Bergès

but varied. For instance, the extended LE minimum centered around 8°N, 10°E in the lower-right sector on 28 August is related to the wide cloud cover of a complex MCS that affected the area during daytime and produced the rainfall patterns labeled a and b in Fig. 2f . Conversely, the westward extent of the largest 28 August rainfall pattern (label c ) coincides with an overall increase in the surface latent heat flux through the next day ( Fig. 2h ). This local maximum is also largely shaped

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Peter Knippertz and Andreas H. Fink

activities reaching from greening pastures to flooding and rotting harvests ( Knippertz and Martin 2005 ; Fall et al. 2007 ; KF08 ). KF08 proposed a close link of the unusual tropical rainfalls to the synoptic evolution in the extratropics. They show that extratropical disturbances penetrating into low latitudes support a diabatic pressure fall over West Africa through the anomalous radiative warming under a diagonal cloud band on the eastern flank of a first trough, often referred to as a tropical

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