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Eun-Kyoung Seo, Sung-Dae Yang, Mircea Grecu, Geun-Hyeok Ryu, Guosheng Liu, Svetla Hristova-Veleva, Yoo-Jeong Noh, Ziad Haddad, and Jinho Shin

first spaceborne precipitation radar (PR). In particular, PR provides valuable measurements to validate and improve the rainfall amount estimated from TMI (e.g., Iguchi et al. 2000 ; Olson et al. 1999 ; Kummerow et al. 2001 , 2011 ; Berg et al. 2006 ; Shige et al. 2006 , 2008 ; Seo et al. 2007 , 2015 ; Gopalan et al. 2010 ). The official TMI precipitation algorithm, the Goddard profiling algorithm (GPROF), is based on the derivation and use of an a priori cloud-radiation database. The

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Atsushi Hamada and Yukari N. Takayabu

improving rainfall retrieval algorithms based on spaceborne passive infrared/microwave measurements. Following the success of TRMM, the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) core observatory was launched successfully at the end of February 2014 and started its observations ( Hou et al. 2014 ). On board the GPM core observatory is a dual-frequency precipitation radar (DPR) that operates in the Ku (13.6 GHz) and Ka (35.5 GHz) bands, making observations between ~65°S and ~65°N from a non

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Veljko Petković, Marko Orescanin, Pierre Kirstetter, Christian Kummerow, and Ralph Ferraro

especially pronounced in satellite observations. Since the first spaceborne passive microwave instruments were launched in early 1970s, satellite precipitation retrievals have exploited the link between upwelling radiation and state of atmospheric column. Leveraging decades of ever-improving algorithms, coverage, and data latency, the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission ( Skofronick-Jackson et al. 2018 ; Hou et al. 2014 ) represents the most advance satellite precipitation project to date

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Tomoaki Mega and Shoichi Shige

1. Introduction Global precipitation information is critical for understanding the global energy and water cycle. Since the 1970s, scientists have been developing techniques to estimate precipitation from satellite radiometric observations, which can cover most of the globe. The first techniques used visible or infrared (IR) data to infer precipitation intensity based on cloud reflectivities or cloud-top temperature ( Barrett 1970 ). The IR technique performs poorly in estimation of warm rain

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