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Margaret A. LeMone, Fei Chen, Mukul Tewari, Jimy Dudhia, Bart Geerts, Qun Miao, Richard L. Coulter, and Robert L. Grossman

track” in Fig. 1 ) is characterized by a mix of mostly grassland (green) and winter wheat (senescent, harvested by mid-June), with trees bordering many fields and waterways. The track extends across the eastern side of the Walnut River watershed southeast of Wichita, Kansas, and into the watershed to the east. The effects of surface heterogeneity on fair-weather CBL structure have been the subject of numerous modeling studies, some of which incorporate observational data, and a few

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Margaret A. LeMone, Fei Chen, Mukul Tewari, Jimy Dudhia, Bart Geerts, Qun Miao, Richard L. Coulter, and Robert L. Grossman

. 2004 ). The eastern track is characterized by a mix of mostly grassland and winter wheat, with trees bordering many fields and waterways. The track extends across the eastern side of the Walnut River watershed southeast of Wichita and into the watershed to the east. The numerical simulations are done with the coupled Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting modeling system (ARW-WRF; Skamarock et al. 2005 ), initialized using the High-Resolution Land Data Assimilation System (HRLDAS

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S. B. Trier, F. Chen, K. W. Manning, M. A. LeMone, and C. A. Davis

studies have emphasized the hydrological importance of horizontal transport of water vapor from remote regions (e.g., Trenberth 1999 ; Dirmeyer and Brubaker 1999 ). The 1993 summer regional-scale precipitation anomaly that led to widespread flooding over the upper Mississippi River basin of the central United States presents an example that has been widely investigated using both global (e.g., Trenberth and Guillemot 1996 ; Beljaars et al. 1996 ; Viterbo and Betts 1999 ) and regional ( Paegle et

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Diane Strassberg, Margaret A. LeMone, Thomas T. Warner, and Joseph G. Alfieri

were not measured at 10 m AGL. The stations were located to sample the major land-use types—grassland, winter wheat, bare ground, and sagebrush—along the three tracks. In addition to scattered buildings, there are trees along all three tracks, mainly located along rivers or bordering fields. Relevant surface measurements are summarized in Table 3 . We used half-hour data, available from www . rap.ucar.edu/research/land/observations/ihop.php. Sensible heat flux H and latent heat flux LE were

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Edward I. Tollerud, Fernando Caracena, Steven E. Koch, Brian D. Jamison, R. Michael Hardesty, Brandi J. McCarty, Christoph Kiemle, Randall S. Collander, Diana L. Bartels, Steven Albers, Brent Shaw, Daniel L. Birkenheuer, and W. Alan Brewer

climatology of the warm season Great Plains low-level jet using wind profiler observations. Wea. Forecasting , 10 , 576 – 591 . Ralph , F. M. , P. J. Neiman , and R. Rotunno , 2005 : Dropsonde observations in low-level jets over the northeastern Pacific Ocean from CALJET-1998 and PACJET-2001: Mean vertical-profile and atmospheric-river characteristics. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 133 , 889 – 910 . Skamarock , W. C. , J. B. Klemp , J. Dudhia , D. O. Gill , D. M. Barker , W. Wang , and

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Monica Górska, Jordi Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, Margaret A. LeMone, and Chiel C. van Heerwaarden

convective boundary layer over the Walnut River watershed. Bound.-Layer Meteor. , 104 , 1 – 52 . LeMone , M. A. , R. L. Grossman , F. Chen , K. Ikeda , and D. Yates , 2003 : Choosing the averaging interval for comparison of observed and modeled fluxes along aircraft transects over a heterogeneous surface. J. Hydrometeor. , 4 , 179 – 195 . LeMone , M. A. , and Coauthors , 2007a : NCAR/CU surface, soil, and vegetation observation network during the IHOP2002 field campaign. Bull

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Steven E. Koch, Wayne Feltz, Frédéric Fabry, Mariusz Pagowski, Bart Geerts, Kristopher M. Bedka, David O. Miller, and James W. Wilson

divergence fields originates primarily from topographic features, such as over eastern New Mexico, or the pronounced northwest–southeast stationary band in southwestern Kansas associated with the Cimarron River valley ( Figs. 19c,d ). However, animation of these hourly fields shows a single band that propagates southeastward in a coherent fashion—the strong southwest–northeast band of coupled convergence and divergence extending from the northwestern part of the Oklahoma Panhandle to central Kansas. This

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Margaret A. LeMone, Mukul Tewari, Fei Chen, Joseph G. Alfieri, and Dev Niyogi

the Walnut River Watershed in Southeast Kansas: CASES and ABLE. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 81 , 757 – 780 . LeMone , M. A. , R. L. Grossman , F. Chen , K. Ikeda , and D. Yates , 2003 : Choosing the averaging interval for comparison of observed and modeled fluxes along aircraft transects over a heterogeneous surface. J. Hydrometeor. , 4 , 179 – 195 . LeMone , M. A. , and Coauthors , 2007a : NCAR/CU surface, soil, and vegetation observation network during the IHOP_2002

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Lindsay J. Bennett, Tammy M. Weckwerth, Alan M. Blyth, Bart Geerts, Qun Miao, and Yvette P. Richardson

convective boundary layer over the Walnut River watershed. Bound.-Layer Meteor. , 104 , 1 – 52 . Lin , Y-L. , 2007 : Mesoscale Dynamics . Cambridge University Press, 674 pp . Linne , H. , B. Hennemuth , J. Bosenberg , and K. Ertel , 2007 : Water vapour flux profiles in the convective boundary layer. Theor. Appl. Climatol. , 87 , 201 – 211 . Mahrt , L. , 1976 : Mixed layer moisture structure. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 104 , 1403 – 1407 . Mahrt , L. , 1979 : An observational study

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