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Alain Joly
,
Dave Jorgensen
,
Melvyn A. Shapiro
,
Alan Thorpe
,
Pierre Bessemoulin
,
Keith A. Browning
,
Jean-Pierre Cammas
,
Jean-Pierre Chalon
,
Sidney A. Clough
,
Kerry A. Emanuel
,
Laurence Eymard
,
Robert Gall
,
Peter H. Hildebrand
,
Rolf H. Langland
,
Yvon Lemaître
,
Peter Lynch
,
James A. Moore
,
P. Ola G. Persson
,
Chris Snyder
, and
Roger M. Wakimoto

The Fronts and Atlantic Storm-Track Experiment (FASTEX) will address the life cycle of cyclones evolving over the North Atlantic Ocean in January and February 1997. The objectives of FASTEX are to improve the forecasts of end-of-storm-track cyclogenesis (primarily in the eastern Atlantic but with applicability to the Pacific) in the range 24 to 72 h, to enable the testing of theoretical ideas on cyclone formation and development, and to document the vertical and the mesoscale structure of cloud systems in mature cyclones and their relation to the dynamics. The observing system includes ships that will remain in the vicinity of the main baroclinic zone in the central Atlantic Ocean, jet aircraft that will fly and drop sondes off the east coast of North America or over the central Atlantic Ocean, turboprop aircraft that will survey mature cyclones off Ireland with dropsondes, and airborne Doppler radars, including ASTRAIA/ELDORA. Radiosounding frequency around the North Atlantic basin will be increased, as well as the number of drifting buoys. These facilities will be activated during multiple-day intensive observing periods in order to observe the same meteorological systems at several stages of their life cycle. A central archive will be developed in quasi-real time in Toulouse, France, thus allowing data to be made widely available to the scientific community.

Full access
John T. Sullivan
,
Timothy Berkoff
,
Guillaume Gronoff
,
Travis Knepp
,
Margaret Pippin
,
Danette Allen
,
Laurence Twigg
,
Robert Swap
,
Maria Tzortziou
,
Anne M. Thompson
,
Ryan M. Stauffer
,
Glenn M. Wolfe
,
James Flynn
,
Sally E. Pusede
,
Laura M. Judd
,
William Moore
,
Barry D. Baker
,
Jay Al-Saadi
, and
Thomas J. McGee

Abstract

Coastal regions have historically represented a significant challenge for air quality investigations because of water–land boundary transition characteristics and a paucity of measurements available over water. Prior studies have identified the formation of high levels of ozone over water bodies, such as the Chesapeake Bay, that can potentially recirculate back over land to significantly impact populated areas. Earth-observing satellites and forecast models face challenges in capturing the coastal transition zone where small-scale meteorological dynamics are complex and large changes in pollutants can occur on very short spatial and temporal scales. An observation strategy is presented to synchronously measure pollutants “over land” and “over water” to provide a more complete picture of chemical gradients across coastal boundaries for both the needs of state and local environmental management and new remote sensing platforms. Intensive vertical profile information from ozone lidar systems and ozonesondes, obtained at two main sites, one over land and the other over water, are complemented by remote sensing and in situ observations of air quality from ground-based, airborne (both personned and unpersonned), and shipborne platforms. These observations, coupled with reliable chemical transport simulations, such as the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Air Quality Forecast Capability (NAQFC), are expected to lead to a more fully characterized and complete land–water interaction observing system that can be used to assess future geostationary air quality instruments, such as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO), and current low-Earth-orbiting satellites, such as the European Space Agency’s Sentinel-5 Precursor (S5-P) with its Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI).

Open access
David C. Fritts
,
Ronald B. Smith
,
Michael J. Taylor
,
James D. Doyle
,
Stephen D. Eckermann
,
Andreas Dörnbrack
,
Markus Rapp
,
Bifford P. Williams
,
P.-Dominique Pautet
,
Katrina Bossert
,
Neal R. Criddle
,
Carolyn A. Reynolds
,
P. Alex Reinecke
,
Michael Uddstrom
,
Michael J. Revell
,
Richard Turner
,
Bernd Kaifler
,
Johannes S. Wagner
,
Tyler Mixa
,
Christopher G. Kruse
,
Alison D. Nugent
,
Campbell D. Watson
,
Sonja Gisinger
,
Steven M. Smith
,
Ruth S. Lieberman
,
Brian Laughman
,
James J. Moore
,
William O. Brown
,
Julie A. Haggerty
,
Alison Rockwell
,
Gregory J. Stossmeister
,
Steven F. Williams
,
Gonzalo Hernandez
,
Damian J. Murphy
,
Andrew R. Klekociuk
,
Iain M. Reid
, and
Jun Ma

Abstract

The Deep Propagating Gravity Wave Experiment (DEEPWAVE) was designed to quantify gravity wave (GW) dynamics and effects from orographic and other sources to regions of dissipation at high altitudes. The core DEEPWAVE field phase took place from May through July 2014 using a comprehensive suite of airborne and ground-based instruments providing measurements from Earth’s surface to ∼100 km. Austral winter was chosen to observe deep GW propagation to high altitudes. DEEPWAVE was based on South Island, New Zealand, to provide access to the New Zealand and Tasmanian “hotspots” of GW activity and additional GW sources over the Southern Ocean and Tasman Sea. To observe GWs up to ∼100 km, DEEPWAVE utilized three new instruments built specifically for the National Science Foundation (NSF)/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Gulfstream V (GV): a Rayleigh lidar, a sodium resonance lidar, and an advanced mesosphere temperature mapper. These measurements were supplemented by in situ probes, dropsondes, and a microwave temperature profiler on the GV and by in situ probes and a Doppler lidar aboard the German DLR Falcon. Extensive ground-based instrumentation and radiosondes were deployed on South Island, Tasmania, and Southern Ocean islands. Deep orographic GWs were a primary target but multiple flights also observed deep GWs arising from deep convection, jet streams, and frontal systems. Highlights include the following: 1) strong orographic GW forcing accompanying strong cross-mountain flows, 2) strong high-altitude responses even when orographic forcing was weak, 3) large-scale GWs at high altitudes arising from jet stream sources, and 4) significant flight-level energy fluxes and often very large momentum fluxes at high altitudes.

Full access
David A. Peterson
,
Laura H. Thapa
,
Pablo E. Saide
,
Amber J. Soja
,
Emily M. Gargulinski
,
Edward J. Hyer
,
Bernadett Weinzierl
,
Maximilian Dollner
,
Manuel Schöberl
,
Philippe P. Papin
,
Shobha Kondragunta
,
Christopher P. Camacho
,
Charles Ichoku
,
Richard H. Moore
,
Johnathan W. Hair
,
James H. Crawford
,
Philip E. Dennison
,
Olga V. Kalashnikova
,
Christel E. Bennese
,
Thaopaul P. Bui
,
Joshua P. DiGangi
,
Glenn S. Diskin
,
Marta A. Fenn
,
Hannah S. Halliday
,
Jose Jimenez
,
John B. Nowak
,
Claire Robinson
,
Kevin Sanchez
,
Taylor J. Shingler
,
Lee Thornhill
,
Elizabeth B. Wiggins
,
Edward Winstead
, and
Chuanyu Xu

Abstract

The 2019 Fire Influence on Regional to Global Environments and Air Quality (FIREX-AQ) field experiment obtained a diverse set of in situ and remotely sensed measurements before and during a pyrocumulonimbus (pyroCb) event over the Williams Flats fire in Washington State. This unique dataset confirms that pyroCb activity is an efficient vertical smoke transport pathway into the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS). The magnitude of smoke plumes observed in the UTLS has increased significantly in recent years, following unprecedented wildfire and pyroCb activity observed worldwide. The FIREX-AQ pyroCb dataset is therefore extremely relevant to a broad community, providing the first measurements of fresh smoke exhaust in the upper troposphere, including from within active pyroCb cloud tops. High-resolution remote sensing reveals that three plume cores linked to localized fire fronts, burning primarily in dense forest fuels, contributed to four total pyroCb “pulses.” Rapid changes in fire geometry and spatial extent dramatically influenced the magnitude, behavior, and duration of pyroCb activity. Cloud probe measurements and weather radar identify the presence of large ice particles within the pyroCb and hydrometers below cloud base, indicating precipitation development. The resulting feedbacks suggest that vertical smoke transport efficiency was reduced slightly when compared with intense pyroCb events reaching the lower stratosphere. Physical and optical aerosol property measurements in pyroCb exhaust are compared with previous assumptions. A large suite of aerosol and gas-phase chemistry measurements sets a foundation for future studies aimed at understanding the composition of smoke plumes lifted by pyroconvection into the UTLS and their role in the climate system.

Full access
Nirnimesh Kumar
,
James A. Lerczak
,
Tongtong Xu
,
Amy F. Waterhouse
,
Jim Thomson
,
Eric J. Terrill
,
Christy Swann
,
Sutara H. Suanda
,
Matthew S. Spydell
,
Pieter B. Smit
,
Alexandra Simpson
,
Roland Romeiser
,
Stephen D. Pierce
,
Tony de Paolo
,
André Palóczy
,
Annika O’Dea
,
Lisa Nyman
,
James N. Moum
,
Melissa Moulton
,
Andrew M. Moore
,
Arthur J. Miller
,
Ryan S. Mieras
,
Sophia T. Merrifield
,
Kendall Melville
,
Jacqueline M. McSweeney
,
Jamie MacMahan
,
Jennifer A. MacKinnon
,
Björn Lund
,
Emanuele Di Lorenzo
,
Luc Lenain
,
Michael Kovatch
,
Tim T. Janssen
,
Sean R. Haney
,
Merrick C. Haller
,
Kevin Haas
,
Derek J. Grimes
,
Hans C. Graber
,
Matt K. Gough
,
David A. Fertitta
,
Falk Feddersen
,
Christopher A. Edwards
,
William Crawford
,
John Colosi
,
C. Chris Chickadel
,
Sean Celona
,
Joseph Calantoni
,
Edward F. Braithwaite III
,
Johannes Becherer
,
John A. Barth
, and
Seongho Ahn

Abstract

The inner shelf, the transition zone between the surfzone and the midshelf, is a dynamically complex region with the evolution of circulation and stratification driven by multiple physical processes. Cross-shelf exchange through the inner shelf has important implications for coastal water quality, ecological connectivity, and lateral movement of sediment and heat. The Inner-Shelf Dynamics Experiment (ISDE) was an intensive, coordinated, multi-institution field experiment from September–October 2017, conducted from the midshelf, through the inner shelf, and into the surfzone near Point Sal, California. Satellite, airborne, shore- and ship-based remote sensing, in-water moorings and ship-based sampling, and numerical ocean circulation models forced by winds, waves, and tides were used to investigate the dynamics governing the circulation and transport in the inner shelf and the role of coastline variability on regional circulation dynamics. Here, the following physical processes are highlighted: internal wave dynamics from the midshelf to the inner shelf; flow separation and eddy shedding off Point Sal; offshore ejection of surfzone waters from rip currents; and wind-driven subtidal circulation dynamics. The extensive dataset from ISDE allows for unprecedented investigations into the role of physical processes in creating spatial heterogeneity, and nonlinear interactions between various inner-shelf physical processes. Overall, the highly spatially and temporally resolved oceanographic measurements and numerical simulations of ISDE provide a central framework for studies exploring this complex and fascinating region of the ocean.

Full access
David A. R. Kristovich
,
George S. Young
,
Johannes Verlinde
,
Peter J. Sousounis
,
Pierre Mourad
,
Donald Lenschow
,
Robert M. Rauber
,
Mohan K. Ramamurthy
,
Brian F. Jewett
,
Kenneth Beard
,
Elen Cutrim
,
Paul J. DeMott
,
Edwin W. Eloranta
,
Mark R. Hjelmfelt
,
Sonia M. Kreidenweis
,
Jon Martin
,
James Moore
,
Harry T. Ochs III
,
David C Rogers
,
John Scala
,
Gregory Tripoli
, and
John Young

A severe 5-day lake-effect storm resulted in eight deaths, hundreds of injuries, and over $3 million in damage to a small area of northeastern Ohio and northwestern Pennsylvania in November 1996. In 1999, a blizzard associated with an intense cyclone disabled Chicago and much of the U.S. Midwest with 30–90 cm of snow. Such winter weather conditions have many impacts on the lives and property of people throughout much of North America. Each of these events is the culmination of a complex interaction between synoptic-scale, mesoscale, and microscale processes.

An understanding of how the multiple size scales and timescales interact is critical to improving forecasting of these severe winter weather events. The Lake-Induced Convection Experiment (Lake-ICE) and the Snowband Dynamics Project (SNOWBAND) collected comprehensive datasets on processes involved in lake-effect snowstorms and snowbands associated with cyclones during the winter of 1997/98. This paper outlines the goals and operations of these collaborative projects. Preliminary findings are given with illustrative examples of new state-of-the-art research observations collected. Analyses associated with Lake-ICE and SNOWBAND hold the promise of greatly improving our scientific understanding of processes involved in these important wintertime phenomena.

Full access
Ian M. Brooks
,
Margaret J. Yelland
,
Robert C. Upstill-Goddard
,
Philip D. Nightingale
,
Steve Archer
,
Eric d'Asaro
,
Rachael Beale
,
Cory Beatty
,
Byron Blomquist
,
A. Anthony Bloom
,
Barbara J. Brooks
,
John Cluderay
,
David Coles
,
John Dacey
,
Michael DeGrandpre
,
Jo Dixon
,
William M. Drennan
,
Joseph Gabriele
,
Laura Goldson
,
Nick Hardman-Mountford
,
Martin K. Hill
,
Matt Horn
,
Ping-Chang Hsueh
,
Barry Huebert
,
Gerrit de Leeuw
,
Timothy G. Leighton
,
Malcolm Liddicoat
,
Justin J. N. Lingard
,
Craig McNeil
,
James B. McQuaid
,
Ben I. Moat
,
Gerald Moore
,
Craig Neill
,
Sarah J. Norris
,
Simon O'Doherty
,
Robin W. Pascal
,
John Prytherch
,
Mike Rebozo
,
Erik Sahlee
,
Matt Salter
,
Ute Schuster
,
Ingunn Skjelvan
,
Hans Slagter
,
Michael H. Smith
,
Paul D. Smith
,
Meric Srokosz
,
John A. Stephens
,
Peter K. Taylor
,
Maciej Telszewski
,
Roisin Walsh
,
Brian Ward
,
David K. Woolf
,
Dickon Young
, and
Henk Zemmelink

As part of the U.K. contribution to the international Surface Ocean-Lower Atmosphere Study, a series of three related projects—DOGEE, SEASAW, and HiWASE—undertook experimental studies of the processes controlling the physical exchange of gases and sea spray aerosol at the sea surface. The studies share a common goal: to reduce the high degree of uncertainty in current parameterization schemes. The wide variety of measurements made during the studies, which incorporated tracer and surfactant release experiments, included direct eddy correlation fluxes, detailed wave spectra, wind history, photographic retrievals of whitecap fraction, aerosolsize spectra and composition, surfactant concentration, and bubble populations in the ocean mixed layer. Measurements were made during three cruises in the northeast Atlantic on the RRS Discovery during 2006 and 2007; a fourth campaign has been making continuous measurements on the Norwegian weather ship Polarfront since September 2006. This paper provides an overview of the three projects and some of the highlights of the measurement campaigns.

Full access
Ian M. Brooks
,
Margaret J. Yelland
,
Robert C. Upstill-Goddard
,
Philip D. Nightingale
,
Steve Archer
,
Eric d'Asaro
,
Rachael Beale
,
Cory Beatty
,
Byron Blomquist
,
A. Anthony Bloom
,
Barbara J. Brooks
,
John Cluderay
,
David Coles
,
John Dacey
,
Michael Degrandpre
,
Jo Dixon
,
William M. Drennan
,
Joseph Gabriele
,
Laura Goldson
,
Nick Hardman-Mountford
,
Martin K. Hill
,
Matt Horn
,
Ping-Chang Hsueh
,
Barry Huebert
,
Gerrit De Leeuw
,
Timothy G. Leighton
,
Malcolm Liddicoat
,
Justin J. N. Lingard
,
Craig Mcneil
,
James B. Mcquaid
,
Ben I. Moat
,
Gerald Moore
,
Craig Neill
,
Sarah J. Norris
,
Simon O'Doherty
,
Robin W. Pascal
,
John Prytherch
,
Mike Rebozo
,
Erik Sahlee
,
Matt Salter
,
Ute Schuster
,
Ingunn Skjelvan
,
Hans Slagter
,
Michael H. Smith
,
Paul D. Smith
,
Meric Srokosz
,
John A. Stephens
,
Peter K. Taylor
,
Maciej Telszewski
,
Roisin Walsh
,
Brian Ward
,
David K. Woolf
,
Dickon Young
, and
Henk Zemmelink

Abstract

No Abstract available.

Full access
Karine Sellegri
,
Mike Harvey
,
Maija Peltola
,
Alexia Saint-Macary
,
Theresa Barthelmeß
,
Manon Rocco
,
Kathryn A. Moore
,
Antonia Cristi
,
Frederic Peyrin
,
Neill Barr
,
Laurent Labonnote
,
Andrew Marriner
,
John McGregor
,
Karl Safi
,
Stacy Deppeler
,
Stephen Archer
,
Erin Dunne
,
James Harnwell
,
Julien Delanoe
,
Evelyn Freney
,
Clémence Rose
,
Clément Bazantay
,
Céline Planche
,
Alfonso Saiz-Lopez
,
Jesús E. Quintanilla-López
,
Rosa Lebrón-Aguilar
,
Matteo Rinaldi
,
Sandra Banson
,
Romain Joseph
,
Aurelia Lupascu
,
Olivier Jourdan
,
Guillaume Mioche
,
Aurélie Colomb
,
Gus Olivares
,
Richard Querel
,
Adrian McDonald
,
Graeme Plank
,
Beata Bukosa
,
Wayne Dillon
,
Jacques Pelon
,
Jean-Luc Baray
,
Frederic Tridon
,
Franck Donnadieu
,
Frédéric Szczap
,
Anja Engel
,
Paul J. DeMott
, and
Cliff S. Law

Abstract

The goal of the Sea2Cloud project is to study the interplay between surface ocean biogeochemical and physical properties, fluxes to the atmosphere, and ultimately their impact on cloud formation under minimal direct anthropogenic influence. Here we present an interdisciplinary approach, combining atmospheric physics and chemistry with marine biogeochemistry, during a voyage between 41° and 47°S in March 2020. In parallel to ambient measurements of atmospheric composition and seawater biogeochemical properties, we describe semicontrolled experiments to characterize nascent sea spray properties and nucleation from gas-phase biogenic emissions. The experimental framework for studying the impact of the predicted evolution of ozone concentration in the Southern Hemisphere is also detailed. After describing the experimental strategy, we present the oceanic and meteorological context including provisional results on atmospheric thermodynamics, composition, and flux measurements. In situ measurements and flux studies were carried out on different biological communities by sampling surface seawater from subantarctic, subtropical, and frontal water masses. Air–Sea-Interface Tanks (ASIT) were used to quantify biogenic emissions of trace gases under realistic environmental conditions, with nucleation observed in association with biogenic seawater emissions. Sea spray continuously generated produced sea spray fluxes of 34% of organic matter by mass, of which 4% particles had fluorescent properties, and which size distribution resembled the one found in clean sectors of the Southern Ocean. The goal of Sea2Cloud is to generate realistic parameterizations of emission flux dependences of trace gases and nucleation precursors, sea spray, cloud condensation nuclei, and ice nuclei using seawater biogeochemistry, for implementation in regional atmospheric models.

Open access
Chelsea R. Thompson
,
Steven C. Wofsy
,
Michael J. Prather
,
Paul A. Newman
,
Thomas F. Hanisco
,
Thomas B. Ryerson
,
David W. Fahey
,
Eric C. Apel
,
Charles A. Brock
,
William H. Brune
,
Karl Froyd
,
Joseph M. Katich
,
Julie M. Nicely
,
Jeff Peischl
,
Eric Ray
,
Patrick R. Veres
,
Siyuan Wang
,
Hannah M. Allen
,
Elizabeth Asher
,
Huisheng Bian
,
Donald Blake
,
Ilann Bourgeois
,
John Budney
,
T. Paul Bui
,
Amy Butler
,
Pedro Campuzano-Jost
,
Cecilia Chang
,
Mian Chin
,
Róisín Commane
,
Gus Correa
,
John D. Crounse
,
Bruce Daube
,
Jack E. Dibb
,
Joshua P. DiGangi
,
Glenn S. Diskin
,
Maximilian Dollner
,
James W. Elkins
,
Arlene M. Fiore
,
Clare M. Flynn
,
Hao Guo
,
Samuel R. Hall
,
Reem A. Hannun
,
Alan Hills
,
Eric J. Hintsa
,
Alma Hodzic
,
Rebecca S. Hornbrook
,
L. Greg Huey
,
Jose L. Jimenez
,
Ralph F. Keeling
,
Michelle J. Kim
,
Agnieszka Kupc
,
Forrest Lacey
,
Leslie R. Lait
,
Jean-Francois Lamarque
,
Junhua Liu
,
Kathryn McKain
,
Simone Meinardi
,
David O. Miller
,
Stephen A. Montzka
,
Fred L. Moore
,
Eric J. Morgan
,
Daniel M. Murphy
,
Lee T. Murray
,
Benjamin A. Nault
,
J. Andrew Neuman
,
Louis Nguyen
,
Yenny Gonzalez
,
Andrew Rollins
,
Karen Rosenlof
,
Maryann Sargent
,
Gregory Schill
,
Joshua P. Schwarz
,
Jason M. St. Clair
,
Stephen D. Steenrod
,
Britton B. Stephens
,
Susan E. Strahan
,
Sarah A. Strode
,
Colm Sweeney
,
Alexander B. Thames
,
Kirk Ullmann
,
Nicholas Wagner
,
Rodney Weber
,
Bernadett Weinzierl
,
Paul O. Wennberg
,
Christina J. Williamson
,
Glenn M. Wolfe
, and
Linghan Zeng

Abstract

This article provides an overview of the NASA Atmospheric Tomography (ATom) mission and a summary of selected scientific findings to date. ATom was an airborne measurements and modeling campaign aimed at characterizing the composition and chemistry of the troposphere over the most remote regions of the Pacific, Southern, Atlantic, and Arctic Oceans, and examining the impact of anthropogenic and natural emissions on a global scale. These remote regions dominate global chemical reactivity and are exceptionally important for global air quality and climate. ATom data provide the in situ measurements needed to understand the range of chemical species and their reactions, and to test satellite remote sensing observations and global models over large regions of the remote atmosphere. Lack of data in these regions, particularly over the oceans, has limited our understanding of how atmospheric composition is changing in response to shifting anthropogenic emissions and physical climate change. ATom was designed as a global-scale tomographic sampling mission with extensive geographic and seasonal coverage, tropospheric vertical profiling, and detailed speciation of reactive compounds and pollution tracers. ATom flew the NASA DC-8 research aircraft over four seasons to collect a comprehensive suite of measurements of gases, aerosols, and radical species from the remote troposphere and lower stratosphere on four global circuits from 2016 to 2018. Flights maintained near-continuous vertical profiling of 0.15–13-km altitudes on long meridional transects of the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean basins. Analysis and modeling of ATom data have led to the significant early findings highlighted here.

Full access