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D. J. Beaubien
,
A. Bisberg
, and
A. F. Beaubien

Abstract

Three approaches to the design of total (global) solar pyranometers that employ new technologies and materials of manufacture are described. The pyranometers are designed to meet or exceed the requirements for high quality instruments as classified by the World Meteorological Organization’s Guide to Meteorological Instruments and Methods of Observation. A pyranometer employing linear thin-film platinum resistance thermometers to measure the temperature rise of an optically black metal surface is presented; a second design utilizes a bismuth telluride thermopile to measure the temperature rise of an optically black silver disc, and a third design uses an optically black, fast-response thin film bismuth antimony thermopile with diffusing foreoptic for determining the solar irradiance level. All three designs employ optically black radiation receiving surfaces. The structure of the radiation detection schemes are presented and electronic circuitry, when required, is described. For each of the instrument types, the measured time responses, ambient temperature response, cosine response, and azimuth asymmetry response are presented. Special-purpose apparatus used for determining cosine response and azimuth response is presented in the appendix .

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B. K. Dichter
,
A. F. Beaubien
, and
D. J. Beaubien

Abstract

Characteristics of an instrument for measuring solar ultraviolet-B irradiance are presented together with a description of the instrument. The instrument measures direct and scattered broadband ultraviolet irradiance (wavelengths between 280 and 330 nm) from the hemisphere of the sky. Measurement technique employs colored glass filters in combination with a fluorescing ultraviolet-sensitive phosphor. Thermal regulation is used to significantly reduce measurement errors introduced by changes in ambient temperature.

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James D. Doyle
,
Jonathan R. Moskaitis
,
Joel W. Feldmeier
,
Ronald J. Ferek
,
Mark Beaubien
,
Michael M. Bell
,
Daniel L. Cecil
,
Robert L. Creasey
,
Patrick Duran
,
Russell L. Elsberry
,
William A. Komaromi
,
John Molinari
,
David R. Ryglicki
,
Daniel P. Stern
,
Christopher S. Velden
,
Xuguang Wang
,
Todd Allen
,
Bradford S. Barrett
,
Peter G. Black
,
Jason P. Dunion
,
Kerry A. Emanuel
,
Patrick A. Harr
,
Lee Harrison
,
Eric A. Hendricks
,
Derrick Herndon
,
William Q. Jeffries
,
Sharanya J. Majumdar
,
James A. Moore
,
Zhaoxia Pu
,
Robert F. Rogers
,
Elizabeth R. Sanabia
,
Gregory J. Tripoli
, and
Da-Lin Zhang

Abstract

Tropical cyclone (TC) outflow and its relationship to TC intensity change and structure were investigated in the Office of Naval Research Tropical Cyclone Intensity (TCI) field program during 2015 using dropsondes deployed from the innovative new High-Definition Sounding System (HDSS) and remotely sensed observations from the Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD), both on board the NASA WB-57 that flew in the lower stratosphere. Three noteworthy hurricanes were intensively observed with unprecedented horizontal resolution: Joaquin in the Atlantic and Marty and Patricia in the eastern North Pacific. Nearly 800 dropsondes were deployed from the WB-57 flight level of ∼60,000 ft (∼18 km), recording atmospheric conditions from the lower stratosphere to the surface, while HIRAD measured the surface winds in a 50-km-wide swath with a horizontal resolution of 2 km. Dropsonde transects with 4–10-km spacing through the inner cores of Hurricanes Patricia, Joaquin, and Marty depict the large horizontal and vertical gradients in winds and thermodynamic properties. An innovative technique utilizing GPS positions of the HDSS reveals the vortex tilt in detail not possible before. In four TCI flights over Joaquin, systematic measurements of a major hurricane’s outflow layer were made at high spatial resolution for the first time. Dropsondes deployed at 4-km intervals as the WB-57 flew over the center of Hurricane Patricia reveal in unprecedented detail the inner-core structure and upper-tropospheric outflow associated with this historic hurricane. Analyses and numerical modeling studies are in progress to understand and predict the complex factors that influenced Joaquin’s and Patricia’s unusual intensity changes.

Open access