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Andreas Richter, Folkard Wittrock, Mark Weber, Steffen Beirle, Sven Kühl, Ulrich Platt, Thomas Wagner, Walburga Wilms-Grabe, and John P. Burrows

Abstract

Measurements from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) are used to study the chemical evolution of the stratosphere during the unusual 2002 winter in the Southern Hemisphere. The results show that chlorine activation as indicated by OClO columns was similar to previous years in the vortex until the major warming on 26 September 2002 after which it decreased rapidly. Similarly, NO2 columns were only slightly larger than in previous years before the warming, indicating strong denoxification and probably also denitrification. After the warming, very large NO2 columns were observed for a few days, which then decreased again as the vortex reestablished itself until the final warming. Ozone columns were much larger than in any previous year from September onward, mainly as a result of the unusual dynamical situation. Analysis of the global long-term time series of GOME measurements since 1996 provides a unique opportunity to set the austral winter 2002 into perspective. The GOME data reveal the large difference in variability of chlorine activation between the two hemispheres, whereas denoxification shows surprisingly little variation from year to year in both hemispheres. However, NO2 depletion in the Southern Hemisphere is usually sustained for about one month longer in the Antarctic stratosphere as a result of the stable vortex. Compared to the observations in the Northern Hemisphere, the austral winter 2002 was still stable and cold and had a high potential for chemical ozone destruction.

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John P. Burrows, Mark Weber, Michael Buchwitz, Vladimir Rozanov, Annette Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, Andreas Richter, Rüdiger DeBeek, Ricarda Hoogen, Klaus Bramstedt, Kai-Uwe Eichmann, Michael Eisinger, and Dieter Perner

Abstract

The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) is a new instrument aboard the European Space Agency’s (ESA) Second European Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS-2), which was launched in April 1995. The main scientific objective of the GOME mission is to determine the global distribution of ozone and several other trace gases, which play an important role in the ozone chemistry of the earth’s stratosphere and troposphere. GOME measures the sunlight scattered from the earth’s atmosphere and/or reflected by the surface in nadir viewing mode in the spectral region 240–790 nm at a moderate spectral resolution of between 0.2 and 0.4 nm. Using the maximum 960-km across-track swath width, the spatial resolution of a GOME ground pixel is 40 × 320 km2 for the majority of the orbit and global coverage is achieved in three days after 43 orbits.

Operational data products of GOME as generated by DLR-DFD, the German Data Processing and Archiving Facility (D-PAF) for GOME, comprise absolute radiometrically calibrated earthshine radiance and solar irradiance spectra (level 1 products) and global distributions of total column amounts of ozone and NO2 (level 2 products), which are derived using the DOAS approach (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy). (Under certain conditions and some restrictions, the operational data products are publically available from the European Space Agency via the ERS Helpdesk.)

In addition to the operational data products, GOME has delivered important information about other minor trace gases such as OClO, volcanic SO2, H2CO from biomass burning, and tropospheric BrO. Using an iterative optimal estimation retrieval scheme, ozone vertical profiles can be derived from the inversion of the UV/VIS spectra. This paper reports on the GOME instrument, its operation mode, and the retrieval techniques, the latter with particular emphasis on DOAS (total column retrieval) and advanced optimal estimation (ozone profile retrieval).

Observation of ozone depletion in the recent polar spring seasons in both hemispheres are presented. OClO observed by GOME under twilight conditions provides valuable information on the chlorine activation inside the polar vortex, which is believed to be responsible for the rapid catalytic destruction of ozone. Episodes of enhanced BrO in the Arctic, most likely contained in the marine boundary layer, were observed in early and late spring. Excess tropospheric nitrogen dioxide and ozone have been observed during the recent Indonesian fire in fall 1997. Formaldehyde could also clearly be identified by GOME and is known to be a by-product resulting from biomass burning.

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Roberto Buizza, Paul Poli, Michel Rixen, Magdalena Alonso-Balmaseda, Michael G. Bosilovich, Stefan Brönnimann, Gilbert P. Compo, Dick P. Dee, Franco Desiato, Marie Doutriaux-Boucher, Masatomo Fujiwara, Andrea K. Kaiser-Weiss, Shinya Kobayashi, Zhiquan Liu, Simona Masina, Pierre-Philippe Mathieu, Nick Rayner, Carolin Richter, Sonia I. Seneviratne, Adrian J. Simmons, Jean-Noel Thépaut, Jeffrey D. Auger, Michel Bechtold, Ellen Berntell, Bo Dong, Michal Kozubek, Khaled Sharif, Christopher Thomas, Semjon Schimanke, Andrea Storto, Matthias Tuma, Ilona Välisuo, and Alireza Vaselali
Open access
Jack Fishman, Kevin W. Bowman, John P. Burrows, Andreas Richter, Kelly V. Chance, David P. Edwards, Randall V. Martin, Gary A. Morris, R. Bradley Pierce, Jerald R. Ziemke, Jassim A. Al-Saadi, John K. Creilson, Todd K. Schaack, and Anne M. Thompson

We review the progress of tropospheric trace gas observations and address the need for additional measurement capabilities as recommended by the National Research Council. Tropospheric measurements show pollution in the Northern Hemisphere as a result of fossil fuel burning and a strong seasonal dependence with the largest amounts of carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide in the winter and spring. In the summer, when photochemistry is most intense, photochemically generated ozone is found in large concentrations over and downwind from where anthropogenic sources are largest, such as the eastern United States and eastern China. In the tropics and the subtropics, where photon flux is strong throughout the year, trace gas concentrations are driven by the abundance of the emissions. The largest single tropical source of pollution is biomass burning, as can be seen readily in carbon monoxide measurements, but lightning and biogenic trace gases may also contribute to trace gas variability. Although substantive progress has been achieved in seasonal and global mapping of a few tropospheric trace gases, satellite trace gas observations with considerably better temporal and spatial resolution are essential to forecasting air quality at the spatial and temporal scales required by policy makers. The concurrent use of atmospheric composition measurements for both scientific and operational purposes is a new paradigm for the atmospheric chemistry community. The examples presented illustrate both the promise and challenge of merging satellite information with in situ observations in state-of-the-art data assimilation models.

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Manfred Wendisch, Andreas Macke, André Ehrlich, Christof Lüpkes, Mario Mech, Dmitry Chechin, Klaus Dethloff, Carola Barrientos Velasco, Heiko Bozem, Marlen Brückner, Hans-Christian Clemen, Susanne Crewell, Tobias Donth, Regis Dupuy, Kerstin Ebell, Ulrike Egerer, Ronny Engelmann, Christa Engler, Oliver Eppers, Martin Gehrmann, Xianda Gong, Matthias Gottschalk, Christophe Gourbeyre, Hannes Griesche, Jörg Hartmann, Markus Hartmann, Bernd Heinold, Andreas Herber, Hartmut Herrmann, Georg Heygster, Peter Hoor, Soheila Jafariserajehlou, Evelyn Jäkel, Emma Järvinen, Olivier Jourdan, Udo Kästner, Simonas Kecorius, Erlend M. Knudsen, Franziska Köllner, Jan Kretzschmar, Luca Lelli, Delphine Leroy, Marion Maturilli, Linlu Mei, Stephan Mertes, Guillaume Mioche, Roland Neuber, Marcel Nicolaus, Tatiana Nomokonova, Justus Notholt, Mathias Palm, Manuela van Pinxteren, Johannes Quaas, Philipp Richter, Elena Ruiz-Donoso, Michael Schäfer, Katja Schmieder, Martin Schnaiter, Johannes Schneider, Alfons Schwarzenböck, Patric Seifert, Matthew D. Shupe, Holger Siebert, Gunnar Spreen, Johannes Stapf, Frank Stratmann, Teresa Vogl, André Welti, Heike Wex, Alfred Wiedensohler, Marco Zanatta, and Sebastian Zeppenfeld

Abstract

Clouds play an important role in Arctic amplification. This term represents the recently observed enhanced warming of the Arctic relative to the global increase of near-surface air temperature. However, there are still important knowledge gaps regarding the interplay between Arctic clouds and aerosol particles, and surface properties, as well as turbulent and radiative fluxes that inhibit accurate model simulations of clouds in the Arctic climate system. In an attempt to resolve this so-called Arctic cloud puzzle, two comprehensive and closely coordinated field studies were conducted: the Arctic Cloud Observations Using Airborne Measurements during Polar Day (ACLOUD) aircraft campaign and the Physical Feedbacks of Arctic Boundary Layer, Sea Ice, Cloud and Aerosol (PASCAL) ice breaker expedition. Both observational studies were performed in the framework of the German Arctic Amplification: Climate Relevant Atmospheric and Surface Processes, and Feedback Mechanisms (AC) project. They took place in the vicinity of Svalbard, Norway, in May and June 2017. ACLOUD and PASCAL explored four pieces of the Arctic cloud puzzle: cloud properties, aerosol impact on clouds, atmospheric radiation, and turbulent dynamical processes. The two instrumented Polar 5 and Polar 6 aircraft; the icebreaker Research Vessel (R/V) Polarstern; an ice floe camp including an instrumented tethered balloon; and the permanent ground-based measurement station at Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, were employed to observe Arctic low- and mid-level mixed-phase clouds and to investigate related atmospheric and surface processes. The Polar 5 aircraft served as a remote sensing observatory examining the clouds from above by downward-looking sensors; the Polar 6 aircraft operated as a flying in situ measurement laboratory sampling inside and below the clouds. Most of the collocated Polar 5/6 flights were conducted either above the R/V Polarstern or over the Ny-Ålesund station, both of which monitored the clouds from below using similar but upward-looking remote sensing techniques as the Polar 5 aircraft. Several of the flights were carried out underneath collocated satellite tracks. The paper motivates the scientific objectives of the ACLOUD/PASCAL observations and describes the measured quantities, retrieved parameters, and the applied complementary instrumentation. Furthermore, it discusses selected measurement results and poses critical research questions to be answered in future papers analyzing the data from the two field campaigns.

Open access