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Anita Baker-Blocker

Abstract

Ultraviolet data from Rochester, Schenectady and Whiteface Mountain, New York, for the period November 1975-December 1977, have been studied to ascertain the importance of extraterrestrial ultraviolet (UV) radiation, sunshine, cloudiness and haze on received ultraviolet radiation. The first three factors can be shown to have great influence on received UV, while haze cannot be shown to selectively attenuate UV. It appears that there is a linear relationship between sunshine duration and received UV, with a correlation coefficient of 0.88 for the data studied.

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Dennis G. Baker
,
Anita Baker-Blocker
,
Bernard H. DeWitt
, and
Dennis W. Dixon

Abstract

Objective predictions of first permanent ice formation and freeze-up on the Great Lakes were made by use of cumulative freezing degree-day totals, by the Lisitzin-Rodhe-Bilello equation, by use of departures from normal air temperature and by use of 30-day temperature outlooks. The four objective methods yield similar improvement over use of the mean date of freeze-up in prediction of these ice events, although freezing degree-day totals appear to represent the best method. Lake Superior ice cover can be predicted using the freezing degree-day method extrapolated to mid-lake locations with better results than a climatological prediction based on the use of long-term mean freeze-up dates.

Ice breakup on the Great Lakes was predicted using thawing degree-day totals and a correlation between stations approach. Both of these predictive techniques are superior to use of the mean date of breakup as a prediction.

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