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Xiangyu Ao, C. S. B. Grimmond, H. C. Ward, A. M. Gabey, Jianguo Tan, Xiu-Qun Yang, Dongwei Liu, Xing Zhi, Hongya Liu, and Ning Zhang


The Surface Urban Energy and Water Balance Scheme (SUEWS) is used to investigate the impact of anthropogenic heat flux Q F and irrigation on surface energy balance partitioning in a central business district of Shanghai. Diurnal profiles of Q F are carefully derived based on city-specific hourly electricity consumption data, hourly traffic data, and dynamic population density. The Q F is estimated to be largest in summer (mean daily peak 236 W m−2). When Q F is omitted, the SUEWS sensible heat flux Q H reproduces the observed diurnal pattern generally well, but the magnitude is underestimated compared to observations for all seasons. When Q F is included, the Q H estimates are improved in spring, summer, and autumn but are poorer in winter, indicating winter Q F is overestimated. Inclusion of Q F has little influence on the simulated latent heat flux Q E but improves the storage heat flux estimates except in winter. Irrigation, both amount and frequency, has a large impact on Q E. When irrigation is not considered, the simulated Q E is underestimated for all seasons. The mean summer daytime Q E is largely overestimated compared to observations under continuous irrigation conditions. Model results are improved when irrigation occurs with a 3-day frequency, especially in summer. Results are consistent with observed monthly outdoor water use. This study highlights the importance of appropriately including Q F and irrigation in urban land surface models—terms not generally considered in many previous studies.

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