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Michael I. Mishchenko
,
Brian Cairns
,
Greg Kopp
,
Carl F. Schueler
,
Bryan A. Fafaul
,
James E. Hansen
,
Ronald J. Hooker
,
Tom Itchkawich
,
Hal B. Maring
, and
Larry D. Travis

The NASA Glory mission is intended to facilitate and improve upon long-term monitoring of two key forcings influencing global climate. One of the mission's principal objectives is to determine the global distribution of detailed aerosol and cloud properties with unprecedented accuracy, thereby facilitating the quantification of the aerosol direct and indirect radiative forcings. The other is to continue the 28-yr record of satellite-based measurements of total solar irradiance from which the effect of solar variability on the Earth's climate is quantified. These objectives will be met by flying two state-of-the-art science instruments on an Earth-orbiting platform. Based on a proven technique demonstrated with an aircraft-based prototype, the Aerosol Polarimetry Sensor (APS) will collect accurate multiangle photopolarimetric measurements of the Earth along the satellite ground track within a wide spectral range extending from the visible to the shortwave infrared. The Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM) is an improved version of an instrument currently flying on the Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) and will provide accurate and precise measurements of spectrally integrated sunlight illuminating the Earth. Because Glory is expected to fly as part of the A-Train constellation of Earth-orbiting spacecraft, the APS data will also be used to improve retrievals of aerosol climate forcing parameters and global aerosol assessments with other A-Train instruments. In this paper, we detail the scientific rationale and objectives of the Glory mission, explain how these scientific objectives dictate the specific measurement strategy, describe how the measurement strategy will be implemented by the APS and TIM, and briefly outline the overall structure of the mission. It is expected that the Glory results will be used extensively by members of the climate, solar, atmospheric, oceanic, and environmental research communities as well as in education and outreach activities.

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P. Jeremy Werdell
,
Michael J. Behrenfeld
,
Paula S. Bontempi
,
Emmanuel Boss
,
Brian Cairns
,
Gary T. Davis
,
Bryan A. Franz
,
Ulrik B. Gliese
,
Eric T. Gorman
,
Otto Hasekamp
,
Kirk D. Knobelspiesse
,
Antonio Mannino
,
J. Vanderlei Martins
,
Charles R. McClain
,
Gerhard Meister
, and
Lorraine A. Remer

Abstract

The Plankton, Aerosol, Cloud, Ocean Ecosystem (PACE) mission represents the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) next investment in satellite ocean color and the study of Earth’s ocean–atmosphere system, enabling new insights into oceanographic and atmospheric responses to Earth’s changing climate. PACE objectives include extending systematic cloud, aerosol, and ocean biological and biogeochemical data records, making essential ocean color measurements to further understand marine carbon cycles, food-web processes, and ecosystem responses to a changing climate, and improving knowledge of how aerosols influence ocean ecosystems and, conversely, how ocean ecosystems and photochemical processes affect the atmosphere. PACE objectives also encompass management of fisheries, large freshwater bodies, and air and water quality and reducing uncertainties in climate and radiative forcing models of the Earth system. PACE observations will provide information on radiative properties of land surfaces and characterization of the vegetation and soils that dominate their reflectance. The primary PACE instrument is a spectrometer that spans the ultraviolet to shortwave-infrared wavelengths, with a ground sample distance of 1 km at nadir. This payload is complemented by two multiangle polarimeters with spectral ranges that span the visible to near-infrared region. Scheduled for launch in late 2022 to early 2023, the PACE observatory will enable significant advances in the study of Earth’s biogeochemistry, carbon cycle, clouds, hydrosols, and aerosols in the ocean–atmosphere–land system. Here, we present an overview of the PACE mission, including its developmental history, science objectives, instrument payload, observatory characteristics, and data products.

Open access
Armin Sorooshian
,
Bruce Anderson
,
Susanne E. Bauer
,
Rachel A. Braun
,
Brian Cairns
,
Ewan Crosbie
,
Hossein Dadashazar
,
Glenn Diskin
,
Richard Ferrare
,
Richard C. Flagan
,
Johnathan Hair
,
Chris Hostetler
,
Haflidi H. Jonsson
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Mary M. Kleb
,
Hongyu Liu
,
Alexander B. MacDonald
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Allison McComiskey
,
Richard Moore
,
David Painemal
,
Lynn M. Russell
,
John H. Seinfeld
,
Michael Shook
,
William L. Smith Jr
,
Kenneth Thornhill
,
George Tselioudis
,
Hailong Wang
,
Xubin Zeng
,
Bo Zhang
,
Luke Ziemba
, and
Paquita Zuidema

Abstract

We report on a multiyear set of airborne field campaigns (2005–16) off the California coast to examine aerosols, clouds, and meteorology, and how lessons learned tie into the upcoming NASA Earth Venture Suborbital (EVS-3) campaign: Aerosol Cloud meTeorology Interactions oVer the western ATlantic Experiment (ACTIVATE; 2019–23). The largest uncertainty in estimating global anthropogenic radiative forcing is associated with the interactions of aerosol particles with clouds, which stems from the variability of cloud systems and the multiple feedbacks that affect and hamper efforts to ascribe changes in cloud properties to aerosol perturbations. While past campaigns have been limited in flight hours and the ability to fly in and around clouds, efforts sponsored by the Office of Naval Research have resulted in 113 single aircraft flights (>500 flight hours) in a fixed region with warm marine boundary layer clouds. All flights used nearly the same payload of instruments on a Twin Otter to fly below, in, and above clouds, producing an unprecedented dataset. We provide here i) an overview of statistics of aerosol, cloud, and meteorological conditions encountered in those campaigns and ii) quantification of model-relevant metrics associated with aerosol–cloud interactions leveraging the high data volume and statistics. Based on lessons learned from those flights, we describe the pragmatic innovation in sampling strategy (dual-aircraft approach with combined in situ and remote sensing) that will be used in ACTIVATE to generate a dataset that can advance scientific understanding and improve physical parameterizations for Earth system and weather forecasting models, and for assessing next-generation remote sensing retrieval algorithms.

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