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  • Author or Editor: C. A. Friehe x
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A. G. Enriquez
and
C. A. Friehe

Abstract

Aircraft measurements during the winter 1989 Shelf Mixed Layer Experiment (SMILE) and summer 1982 Coastal Ocean Dynamics Experiment (CODE) were used to characterize the spatial variation of the low-level wind and wind stress over the northern California shelf. The curl of the wind stress was calculated from directly measured turbulent stress components. The accuracy of the computed curl was estimated to be adequate to map the spatial structure. Wintertime measurements showed a concentration of large positive curl [over 1 Pa (100 km)−1] west of Point Arena, regardless of wind direction, due to the effects of the coastal topography on the wind fields. Results from summertime measurements showed a similar local maximum of positive curl west of Point Arena. Larger curl values [over 3.5 Pa (100 km)−1], however, were observed across a hydraulic jump propagating from Stewarts Point for highly supercritical marine boundary-layer flow.

A two-layer, vertically integrated numerical model of coastal upwelling was used to assess the relative importance of the stress curl to the stress-driven transport. The nonzero stress curl altered the thickness of the upper layer considerably after a day of integration, expanding the horizontal extent of upwelling offshore. The greatest effects were around areas of high positive curl, increasing coastal upwelling for downcoast winds and decreasing downwelling for upcoast winds. The effect of the stress curl, however, was attenuated near the coast as compared to the maximum possible deep water values. The validity of the numerical model was verified by comparison with an analytical solution of a simplified set of one-dimensional, frictionless equations of motion.

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K. F. Schmitt
,
C. A. Friehe
, and
C. H. Gibson

Abstract

Anomalous results concerning the micrometeorological temperature field in the boundary layer over the ocean have been obtained in many recent experiments. These include lack of an inertial-convective subrange in temperature spectra, unusually large values for the scalar universal subrange constant, underestimation of the sensible heat flux by the bulk aerodynamic formula, gross imbalance of dissipation and production terms in the temperature variance budget equation, and dissimilarities of the temperature and humidity statistics and time traces. Empirically it has been observed that such results occur for unstable conditions when the temperature time series is characterized by a peculiar waveform, termed a “cold spike”, which has no counterpart in the humidity field and has not been observed over land.

To explain these results, it is proposed that surfaces of the small temperature sensors (thermistors, thermocouples and resistance wires) commonly used in marine boundary layer experiments become contaminated with salt spray when used over the ocean. Under typical ocean conditions (relative humidity > 70%), the results of Twomey (1953) indicate that the spray will exist as saline drops on the probe surfaces. Water will evaporate from or condense on the saline drops as the humidity around the sensor decreases or increases, respectively. The latent heat of vaporization associated with the evaporation and condensation processes will cool and heat the sensor, and therefore generate erroneous temperature signals. Evidence is presented that most of the anomalous temperature results observed over the ocean, including “cold spikes”, may be due to the spray-induced humidity sensitivity of such temperature sensors.

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G. R. Stegen
,
C. H. Gibson
, and
C. A. Friehe

Abstract

Vertical fluxes of momentum and sensible heat have been measured above the sea surface by the direct dissipation method. Measurements were made over the open ocean from the Scripps Floating Instrument Platform (FLIP) during the Barbados Oceanographic and Meteorological Experiment (BOMEX). The results are compared with simultaneous measurements of the fluxes by the profile, dissipation, and eddy correlation methods.

The momentum flux was inferred from the rate of viscous dissipation ε above the sea surface. The dissipation was determined by integrating the velocity derivative spectra after correcting the spectra for filter response. The friction velocity (u *) corrected for diabatic effects was 17.4 cm sec−1, corresponding to a shear stress τ=0.35 dyn cm−2. Profile measurements by the University of Washington gave the same value of u * in agreement with the present results. Measurements of momentum flux by Oregon State University (OSU) and the University of British Columbia using dissipation and eddy correlation methods gave somewhat higher values. Correction of the Kolmogoroff inertial subrange constant used in the OSU dissipation calculations gives fluxes in good agreement with the present work.

The sensible heat flux was inferred from the rate of dissipation χ of temperature variance. The temperature derivative spectra were corrected for instrument response and integrated to obtain values of χ. The average value of the sensible heat flux was 0.74 mW cm−2, in reasonable agreement with the profile and eddy correlation measurements. A value of sensible beat flux of 2.8 mW cm−2 has been reported by OSU using the dissipation technique. Correction of the temperature inertial subrange constant used by OSU lowered their heat flux to 1.1 mW cm−2.

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R. A. Antonia
,
A. J. Chambers
,
S. Rajagopalan
,
K. R. Sreenivasan
, and
C. A. Friehe

Abstract

Measurements of turbulent momentum, heat and moisture fluxes have been made in Bass Strait from a stable platform, at a height of approximately 5 m above water. Direct measurements of these fluxes are compared with estimates obtained from spectra of velocity, temperature and humidity fluctuations with the use of the inertial dissipation technique. Directly measured momentum and moisture flux values are in reasonable agreement with inertial dissipation values. The sensible heal flux obtained by the inertial dissipation technique is about twice as large as the directly measured heat flux. The dependence on wind speed of bulk transfer coefficients of momentum, heat and moisture and of variances of velocity and scalar fluctuations is discussed and compared with available data.

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