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  • Author or Editor: Claire Pettersen x
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Steven J. Cooper
,
Tristan S. L’Ecuyer
,
Mareile Astrid Wolff
,
Thomas Kuhn
,
Claire Pettersen
,
Norman B. Wood
,
Salomon Eliasson
,
Claire E. Schirle
,
Julia Shates
,
Franziska Hellmuth
,
Bjørg Jenny Kokkvoll Engdahl
,
Sandra Vásquez-Martín
,
Trond Ilmo
, and
Knut Nygård

Abstract

The High-Latitude Measurement of Snowfall (HiLaMS) campaign explored variability in snowfall properties and processes at meteorologically distinct field sites located in Haukeliseter, Norway, and Kiruna, Sweden, during the winters of 2016/17 and 2017/18, respectively. Campaign activities were founded upon the sensitivities of a low-cost, core instrumentation suite consisting of Micro Rain Radar, Precipitation Imaging Package, and Multi-Angle Snow Camera. These instruments are highly portable to remote field sites and, considered together, provide a unique and complementary set of snowfall observations including snowflake habit, particle size distributions, fall speeds, surface snowfall accumulations, and vertical profiles of radar moments and snow water content. These snow-specific parameters, used in combination with existing observations from the field sites such as snow gauge accumulations and ambient weather conditions, allow for advanced studies of snowfall processes. HiLaMS observations were used to 1) successfully develop a combined radar and in situ microphysical property retrieval scheme to estimate both surface snowfall accumulation and the vertical profile of snow water content, 2) identify the predominant snowfall regimes at Haukeliseter and Kiruna and characterize associated macrophysical and microphysical properties, snowfall production, and meteorological conditions, and 3) identify biases in the HARMONIE-AROME numerical weather prediction model for forecasts of snowfall accumulations and vertical profiles of snow water content for the distinct snowfall regimes observed at the mountainous Haukeliseter site. HiLaMS activities and results suggest value in the deployment of this enhanced snow observing instrumentation suite to new and diverse high-latitude locations that may be underrepresented in climate and weather process studies.

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Mark S. Kulie
,
Claire Pettersen
,
Aronne J. Merrelli
,
Timothy J. Wagner
,
Norman B. Wood
,
Michael Dutter
,
David Beachler
,
Todd Kluber
,
Robin Turner
,
Marian Mateling
,
John Lenters
,
Peter Blanken
,
Maximilian Maahn
,
Christopher Spence
,
Stefan Kneifel
,
Paul A. Kucera
,
Ali Tokay
,
Larry F. Bliven
,
David B. Wolff
, and
Walter A. Petersen

BAMS Capsule:

Profiling radar and ground-based in situ observations reveal the ubiquity of snowfall produced by shallow clouds, the importance of near-surface snowfall enhancement processes, and regime-dependent snow particle microphysical variability in the Northern Great Lakes Region.

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Mark S. Kulie
,
Claire Pettersen
,
Aronne J. Merrelli
,
Timothy J. Wagner
,
Norman B. Wood
,
Michael Dutter
,
David Beachler
,
Todd Kluber
,
Robin Turner
,
Marian Mateling
,
John Lenters
,
Peter Blanken
,
Maximilian Maahn
,
Christopher Spence
,
Stefan Kneifel
,
Paul A. Kucera
,
Ali Tokay
,
Larry F. Bliven
,
David B. Wolff
, and
Walter A. Petersen

Abstract

A multisensor snowfall observational suite has been deployed at the Marquette, Michigan, National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office (KMQT) since 2014. Micro Rain Radar (MRR; profiling radar), Precipitation Imaging Package (PIP; snow particle imager), and ancillary ground-based meteorological observations illustrate the unique capabilities of these combined instruments to document radar and concomitant microphysical properties associated with northern Great Lakes snowfall regimes. Lake-effect, lake-orographic, and transition event case studies are presented that illustrate the variety of snowfall events that occur at KMQT. Case studies and multiyear analyses reveal the ubiquity of snowfall produced by shallow events. These shallow snowfall features and their distinctive microphysical fingerprints are often difficult to discern with conventional remote sensing instruments, thus highlighting the scientific and potential operational value of MRR and PIP observations. The importance of near-surface lake-orographic snowfall enhancement processes in extreme snowfall events and regime-dependent snow particle microphysical variability controlled by regime and environmental factors are also highlighted.

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BRIAN J. BUTTERWORTH
,
ANKUR R. DESAI
,
STEFAN METZGER
,
PHILIP A. TOWNSEND
,
MARK D. SCHWARTZ
,
GRANT W. PETTY
,
MATTHIAS MAUDER
,
HANNES VOGELMANN
,
CHRISTIAN G. ANDRESEN
,
TRAVIS J. AUGUSTINE
,
TIMOTHY H. BERTRAM
,
WILLIAM O.J. BROWN
,
MICHAEL BUBAN
,
PATRICIA CLEARY
,
DAVID J. DURDEN
,
CHRISTOPHER R. FLORIAN
,
TREVOR J. IGLINSKI
,
ERIC L. KRUGER
,
KATHLEEN LANTZ
,
TEMPLE R. LEE
,
TILDEN P. MEYERS
,
JAMES K. MINEAU
,
ERIK R. OLSON
,
STEVEN P. ONCLEY
,
SREENATH PALERI
,
ROSALYN A. PERTZBORN
,
CLAIRE PETTERSEN
,
DAVID M. PLUMMER
,
LAURA RIIHIMAKI
,
ELICEO RUIZ GUZMAN
,
JOSEPH SEDLAR
,
ELIZABETH N. SMITH
,
JOHANNES SPEIDEL
,
PAUL C. STOY
,
MATTHIAS SÜHRING
,
JONATHAN E. THOM
,
DAVID D. TURNER
,
MICHAEL P. VERMEUEL
,
TIMOTHY J. WAGNER
,
ZHIEN WANG
,
LUISE WANNER
,
LOREN D. WHITE
,
JAMES M. WILCZAK
,
DANIEL B. WRIGHT
, and
TING ZHENG

CAPSULE SUMMARY

A regional-scale observational experiment designed to address how the atmospheric boundary layer responds to spatial heterogeneity in surface energy fluxes.

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Brian J. Butterworth
,
Ankur R. Desai
,
Philip A. Townsend
,
Grant W. Petty
,
Christian G. Andresen
,
Timothy H. Bertram
,
Eric L. Kruger
,
James K. Mineau
,
Erik R. Olson
,
Sreenath Paleri
,
Rosalyn A. Pertzborn
,
Claire Pettersen
,
Paul C. Stoy
,
Jonathan E. Thom
,
Michael P. Vermeuel
,
Timothy J. Wagner
,
Daniel B. Wright
,
Ting Zheng
,
Stefan Metzger
,
Mark D. Schwartz
,
Trevor J. Iglinski
,
Matthias Mauder
,
Johannes Speidel
,
Hannes Vogelmann
,
Luise Wanner
,
Travis J. Augustine
,
William O. J. Brown
,
Steven P. Oncley
,
Michael Buban
,
Temple R. Lee
,
Patricia Cleary
,
David J. Durden
,
Christopher R. Florian
,
Kathleen Lantz
,
Laura D. Riihimaki
,
Joseph Sedlar
,
Tilden P. Meyers
,
David M. Plummer
,
Eliceo Ruiz Guzman
,
Elizabeth N. Smith
,
Matthias Sühring
,
David D. Turner
,
Zhien Wang
,
Loren D. White
, and
James M. Wilczak

Abstract

The Chequamegon Heterogeneous Ecosystem Energy-Balance Study Enabled by a High-Density Extensive Array of Detectors 2019 (CHEESEHEAD19) is an ongoing National Science Foundation project based on an intensive field campaign that occurred from June to October 2019. The purpose of the study is to examine how the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) responds to spatial heterogeneity in surface energy fluxes. One of the main objectives is to test whether lack of energy balance closure measured by eddy covariance (EC) towers is related to mesoscale atmospheric processes. Finally, the project evaluates data-driven methods for scaling surface energy fluxes, with the aim to improve model–data comparison and integration. To address these questions, an extensive suite of ground, tower, profiling, and airborne instrumentation was deployed over a 10 km × 10 km domain of a heterogeneous forest ecosystem in the Chequamegon–Nicolet National Forest in northern Wisconsin, United States, centered on an existing 447-m tower that anchors an AmeriFlux/NOAA supersite (US-PFa/WLEF). The project deployed one of the world’s highest-density networks of above-canopy EC measurements of surface energy fluxes. This tower EC network was coupled with spatial measurements of EC fluxes from aircraft; maps of leaf and canopy properties derived from airborne spectroscopy, ground-based measurements of plant productivity, phenology, and physiology; and atmospheric profiles of wind, water vapor, and temperature using radar, sodar, lidar, microwave radiometers, infrared interferometers, and radiosondes. These observations are being used with large-eddy simulation and scaling experiments to better understand submesoscale processes and improve formulations of subgrid-scale processes in numerical weather and climate models.

Open access