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Diana L. Verseghy
and
Murray D. MacKay

Abstract

The Canadian Small Lake Model (CSLM), version 2, was run with the Canadian Land Surface Scheme (CLASS), version 3.6.1, in an offline regional test over western Canada. Forcing data were derived from ERA-Interim and downscaled using the fifth-generation Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM5). The forcing precipitation field was adjusted using monthly data from the Canadian Gridded Temperature and Precipitation Anomalies (CANGRD) observation-based dataset. The modeled surface air temperature was evaluated against CANGRD data, the modeled albedo against MODIS data, and the modeled snow water equivalent against Canadian Meteorological Centre (CMC) and Global Snow Monitoring for Climate Research (GlobSnow) data. The lake simulation itself was evaluated using the Along Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) Reprocessing for Climate: Lake Surface Water Temperature and Ice Cover (ARC-Lake) dataset. Summer surface lake temperatures and the lake ice formation and breakup periods were well simulated, except for slight warm/cold summer/fall surface temperature biases, early ice breakup, and early ice formation, consistent with warm/cold biases in the climate simulation. Tests were carried out to investigate the sensitivity of the CSLM simulation to the default values assigned to the shortwave extinction coefficient and the average lake depth, and changing the former from 0.5 to 2.0 m−1 and the latter from 10.0 to 50.0 or 5.0 m had minimal effects on the simulation. Comparisons of the average annual variations of the simulated net shortwave radiation, turbulent fluxes, snowpack, and maximum and minimum daily surface temperatures between the land and the lake fractions for tundra, boreal, and southern regions showed patterns consistent with those expected. Finally, a test of the CSLM over the large resolved lakes in the model domain demonstrated a performance comparable to that for subgrid lakes.

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Murray D. MacKay
,
Diana L. Verseghy
,
Vincent Fortin
, and
Michael D. Rennie

Abstract

A one-dimensional mixed layer dynamic lake model is enhanced with snow and ice physics for an examination of processes governing ice cover and phenology in a small boreal lake. The complete snowpack physics module of the Canadian Land Surface Scheme along with a new snow-ice parameterization have been added to the Canadian Small Lake Model, and detailed meteorological and temperature profile data have been acquired for the forcing and evaluation of two wintertime simulations. During the first winter, simulated ice-on and ice-off biases were −3 and −5 days, respectively. In the second winter simulation, ice-on bias was larger, likely due to the absence of a frazil ice scheme in the model, and simulated ice-off was 6 days late, evidently due to insufficient convective mixing beneath the ice in the weeks leading up to ice-off. Ice cover was simulated about 25% too thin between January and March for this year, though late January simulated snow and snow-ice amounts were close to observed. The impact of snow-ice production on simulated ice cover and phenology was found to be dramatic for this lake. In the absence of this process, January snow was more than twice as deep as observed and March ice thickness was less than one-third of that observed. Without snow-ice production, a reasonable simulation of ice cover could only be restored if 62% of snowfall was removed ad hoc (e.g., through blowing snow redistribution)—an excessive amount for a small, sheltered boreal lake.

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A. Boone
,
F. Habets
,
J. Noilhan
,
D. Clark
,
P. Dirmeyer
,
S. Fox
,
Y. Gusev
,
I. Haddeland
,
R. Koster
,
D. Lohmann
,
S. Mahanama
,
K. Mitchell
,
O. Nasonova
,
G.-Y. Niu
,
A. Pitman
,
J. Polcher
,
A. B. Shmakin
,
K. Tanaka
,
B. van den Hurk
,
S. Vérant
,
D. Verseghy
,
P. Viterbo
, and
Z.-L. Yang

Abstract

The Rhône-Aggregation (Rhône-AGG) Land Surface Scheme (LSS) intercomparison project is an initiative within the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX)/Global Land–Atmosphere System Study (GLASS) panel of the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP). It is a intermediate step leading up to the next phase of the Global Soil Wetness Project (GSWP) (Phase 2), for which there will be a broader investigation of the aggregation between global scales (GSWP-1) and the river scale. This project makes use of the Rhône modeling system, which was developed in recent years by the French research community in order to study the continental water cycle on a regional scale.

The main goals of this study are to investigate how 15 LSSs simulate the water balance for several annual cycles compared to data from a dense observation network consisting of daily discharge from over 145 gauges and daily snow depth from 24 sites, and to examine the impact of changing the spatial scale on the simulations. The overall evapotranspiration, runoff, and monthly change in water storage are similarly simulated by the LSSs, however, the differing partitioning among the fluxes results in very different river discharges and soil moisture equilibrium states. Subgrid runoff is especially important for discharge at the daily timescale and for smaller-scale basins. Also, models using an explicit treatment of the snowpack compared better with the observations than simpler composite schemes.

Results from a series of scaling experiments are examined for which the spatial resolution of the computational grid is decreased to be consistent with large-scale atmospheric models. The impact of upscaling on the domain-averaged hydrological components is similar among most LSSs, with increased evaporation of water intercepted by the canopy and a decrease in surface runoff representing the most consistent inter-LSS responses. A significant finding is that the snow water equivalent is greatly reduced by upscaling in all LSSs but one that explicitly accounts for subgrid-scale orography effects on the atmospheric forcing.

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Zhichang Guo
,
Paul A. Dirmeyer
,
Randal D. Koster
,
Y. C. Sud
,
Gordon Bonan
,
Keith W. Oleson
,
Edmond Chan
,
Diana Verseghy
,
Peter Cox
,
C. T. Gordon
,
J. L. McGregor
,
Shinjiro Kanae
,
Eva Kowalczyk
,
David Lawrence
,
Ping Liu
,
David Mocko
,
Cheng-Hsuan Lu
,
Ken Mitchell
,
Sergey Malyshev
,
Bryant McAvaney
,
Taikan Oki
,
Tomohito Yamada
,
Andrew Pitman
,
Christopher M. Taylor
,
Ratko Vasic
, and
Yongkang Xue

Abstract

The 12 weather and climate models participating in the Global Land–Atmosphere Coupling Experiment (GLACE) show both a wide variation in the strength of land–atmosphere coupling and some intriguing commonalities. In this paper, the causes of variations in coupling strength—both the geographic variations within a given model and the model-to-model differences—are addressed. The ability of soil moisture to affect precipitation is examined in two stages, namely, the ability of the soil moisture to affect evaporation, and the ability of evaporation to affect precipitation. Most of the differences between the models and within a given model are found to be associated with the first stage—an evaporation rate that varies strongly and consistently with soil moisture tends to lead to a higher coupling strength. The first-stage differences reflect identifiable differences in model parameterization and model climate. Intermodel differences in the evaporation–precipitation connection, however, also play a key role.

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Weiqing Qu
,
A. Henderson-Sellers
,
A. J. Pitman
,
T. H. Chen
,
F. Abramopoulos
,
A. Boone
,
S. Chang
,
F. Chen
,
Y. Dai
,
R. E. Dickinson
,
L. Dümenil
,
M. Ek
,
N. Gedney
,
Y. M. Gusev
,
J. Kim
,
R. Koster
,
E. A. Kowalczyk
,
J. Lean
,
D. Lettenmaier
,
X. Liang
,
J.-F. Mahfouf
,
H.-T. Mengelkamp
,
K. Mitchell
,
O. N. Nasonova
,
J. Noilhan
,
A. Robock
,
C. Rosenzweig
,
J. Schaake
,
C. A. Schlosser
,
J.-P. Schulz
,
A. B. Shmakin
,
D. L. Verseghy
,
P. Wetzel
,
E. F. Wood
,
Z.-L. Yang
, and
Q. Zeng

Abstract

In the PILPS Phase 2a experiment, 23 land-surface schemes were compared in an off-line control experiment using observed meteorological data from Cabauw, the Netherlands. Two simple sensitivity experiments were also undertaken in which the observed surface air temperature was artificially increased or decreased by 2 K while all other factors remained as observed. On the annual timescale, all schemes show similar responses to these perturbations in latent, sensible heat flux, and other key variables. For the 2-K increase in temperature, surface temperatures and latent heat fluxes all increase while net radiation, sensible heat fluxes, and soil moistures all decrease. The results are reversed for a 2-K temperature decrease. The changes in sensible heat fluxes and, especially, the changes in the latent heat fluxes are not linearly related to the change of temperature. Theoretically, the nonlinear relationship between air temperature and the latent heat flux is evident and due to the convex relationship between air temperature and saturation vapor pressure. A simple test shows that, the effect of the change of air temperature on the atmospheric stratification aside, this nonlinear relationship is shown in the form that the increase of the latent heat flux for a 2-K temperature increase is larger than its decrease for a 2-K temperature decrease. However, the results from the Cabauw sensitivity experiments show that the increase of the latent heat flux in the +2-K experiment is smaller than the decrease of the latent heat flux in the −2-K experiment (we refer to this as the asymmetry). The analysis in this paper shows that this inconsistency between the theoretical relationship and the Cabauw sensitivity experiments results (or the asymmetry) is due to (i) the involvement of the β g formulation, which is a function of a series stress factors that limited the evaporation and whose values change in the ±2-K experiments, leading to strong modifications of the latent heat flux; (ii) the change of the drag coefficient induced by the changes in stratification due to the imposed air temperature changes (±2 K) in parameterizations of latent heat flux common in current land-surface schemes. Among all stress factors involved in the β g formulation, the soil moisture stress in the +2-K experiment induced by the increased evaporation is the main factor that contributes to the asymmetry.

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T. H. Chen
,
A. Henderson-Sellers
,
P. C. D. Milly
,
A. J. Pitman
,
A. C. M. Beljaars
,
J. Polcher
,
F. Abramopoulos
,
A. Boone
,
S. Chang
,
F. Chen
,
Y. Dai
,
C. E. Desborough
,
R. E. Dickinson
,
L. Dümenil
,
M. Ek
,
J. R. Garratt
,
N. Gedney
,
Y. M. Gusev
,
J. Kim
,
R. Koster
,
E. A. Kowalczyk
,
K. Laval
,
J. Lean
,
D. Lettenmaier
,
X. Liang
,
J.-F. Mahfouf
,
H.-T. Mengelkamp
,
K. Mitchell
,
O. N. Nasonova
,
J. Noilhan
,
A. Robock
,
C. Rosenzweig
,
J. Schaake
,
C. A. Schlosser
,
J.-P. Schulz
,
Y. Shao
,
A. B. Shmakin
,
D. L. Verseghy
,
P. Wetzel
,
E. F. Wood
,
Y. Xue
,
Z.-L. Yang
, and
Q. Zeng

Abstract

In the Project for Intercomparison of Land-Surface Parameterization Schemes phase 2a experiment, meteorological data for the year 1987 from Cabauw, the Netherlands, were used as inputs to 23 land-surface flux schemes designed for use in climate and weather models. Schemes were evaluated by comparing their outputs with long-term measurements of surface sensible heat fluxes into the atmosphere and the ground, and of upward longwave radiation and total net radiative fluxes, and also comparing them with latent heat fluxes derived from a surface energy balance. Tuning of schemes by use of the observed flux data was not permitted. On an annual basis, the predicted surface radiative temperature exhibits a range of 2 K across schemes, consistent with the range of about 10 W m−2 in predicted surface net radiation. Most modeled values of monthly net radiation differ from the observations by less than the estimated maximum monthly observational error (±10 W m−2). However, modeled radiative surface temperature appears to have a systematic positive bias in most schemes; this might be explained by an error in assumed emissivity and by models’ neglect of canopy thermal heterogeneity. Annual means of sensible and latent heat fluxes, into which net radiation is partitioned, have ranges across schemes of30 W m−2 and 25 W m−2, respectively. Annual totals of evapotranspiration and runoff, into which the precipitation is partitioned, both have ranges of 315 mm. These ranges in annual heat and water fluxes were approximately halved upon exclusion of the three schemes that have no stomatal resistance under non-water-stressed conditions. Many schemes tend to underestimate latent heat flux and overestimate sensible heat flux in summer, with a reverse tendency in winter. For six schemes, root-mean-square deviations of predictions from monthly observations are less than the estimated upper bounds on observation errors (5 W m−2 for sensible heat flux and 10 W m−2 for latent heat flux). Actual runoff at the site is believed to be dominated by vertical drainage to groundwater, but several schemes produced significant amounts of runoff as overland flow or interflow. There is a range across schemes of 184 mm (40% of total pore volume) in the simulated annual mean root-zone soil moisture. Unfortunately, no measurements of soil moisture were available for model evaluation. A theoretical analysis suggested that differences in boundary conditions used in various schemes are not sufficient to explain the large variance in soil moisture. However, many of the extreme values of soil moisture could be explained in terms of the particulars of experimental setup or excessive evapotranspiration.

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A. G. Slater
,
C. A. Schlosser
,
C. E. Desborough
,
A. J. Pitman
,
A. Henderson-Sellers
,
A. Robock
,
K. Ya Vinnikov
,
J. Entin
,
K. Mitchell
,
F. Chen
,
A. Boone
,
P. Etchevers
,
F. Habets
,
J. Noilhan
,
H. Braden
,
P. M. Cox
,
P. de Rosnay
,
R. E. Dickinson
,
Z-L. Yang
,
Y-J. Dai
,
Q. Zeng
,
Q. Duan
,
V. Koren
,
S. Schaake
,
N. Gedney
,
Ye M. Gusev
,
O. N. Nasonova
,
J. Kim
,
E. A. Kowalczyk
,
A. B. Shmakin
,
T. G. Smirnova
,
D. Verseghy
,
P. Wetzel
, and
Y. Xue

Abstract

Twenty-one land surface schemes (LSSs) performed simulations forced by 18 yr of observed meteorological data from a grassland catchment at Valdai, Russia, as part of the Project for the Intercomparison of Land-Surface Parameterization Schemes (PILPS) Phase 2(d). In this paper the authors examine the simulation of snow. In comparison with observations, the models are able to capture the broad features of the snow regime on both an intra- and interannual basis. However, weaknesses in the simulations exist, and early season ablation events are a significant source of model scatter. Over the 18-yr simulation, systematic differences between the models’ snow simulations are evident and reveal specific aspects of snow model parameterization and design as being responsible. Vapor exchange at the snow surface varies widely among the models, ranging from a large net loss to a small net source for the snow season. Snow albedo, fractional snow cover, and their interplay have a large effect on energy available for ablation, with differences among models most evident at low snow depths. The incorporation of the snowpack within an LSS structure affects the method by which snow accesses, as well as utilizes, available energy for ablation. The sensitivity of some models to longwave radiation, the dominant winter radiative flux, is partly due to a stability-induced feedback and the differing abilities of models to exchange turbulent energy with the atmosphere. Results presented in this paper suggest where weaknesses in macroscale snow modeling lie and where both theoretical and observational work should be focused to address these weaknesses.

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