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E. E. Clothiaux, M. A. Miller, B. A. Albrecht, T. P. Ackerman, J. Verlinde, D. M. Babb, R. M. Peters, and W. J. Syrett

Abstract

The performance of a 94-GHz radar is evaluated for a variety of cloud conditions. Descriptions of the radar hardware, signal processing, and calibration provide an overview of the radar's capabilities. An important component of the signal processing is the application of two cloud-mask schemes to the data to provide objective estimates of cloud boundaries and to detect significant returns that would otherwise be discarded if a simple threshold method for delectability was applied to the return power. Realistic profiles of atmospheric pressure, temperature, and water vapor are used in a radiative transfer model to address clear-sky attenuation. A physically relevant study of beam extinction and backscattering by clouds is attempted by modeling cloud drop size distributions with a gamma distribution over a range of number concentrations, particle mean diameters, and distribution shape factors; cloud liquid water contents and mean drop size diameters reported in the literature are analyzed in this context. Results of observations of a number of cloud structures, including marine strato- cumulus, cirrus, and stratus and cirrus associated with a midlatitude cyclone are described.

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