Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 4 of 4 items for :

  • Author or Editor: David A. Rutan x
  • Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology x
  • Refine by Access: Content accessible to me x
Clear All Modify Search
Fred G. Rose
,
David A. Rutan
,
Thomas Charlock
,
G. Louis Smith
, and
Seiji Kato

Abstract

NASA’s Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) project is responsible for operation and data processing of observations from scanning radiometers on board the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), Terra, Aqua, and Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellites. The clouds and radiative swath (CRS) CERES data product contains irradiances computed using a radiative transfer model for nearly all CERES footprints in addition to top-of-atmosphere (TOA) irradiances derived from observed radiances by CERES instruments. This paper describes a method to constrain computed irradiances by CERES-derived TOA irradiances using Lagrangian multipliers. Radiative transfer model inputs include profiles of atmospheric temperature, humidity, aerosols and ozone, surface temperature and albedo, and up to two sets of cloud properties for a CERES footprint. Those inputs are adjusted depending on predefined uncertainties to match computed TOA and CERES-derived TOA irradiance. Because CERES instantaneous irradiances for an individual footprint also include uncertainties, primarily due to the conversion of radiance to irradiance using anisotropic directional models, the degree of the constraint depends on CERES-derived TOA irradiance as well. As a result of adjustment, TOA computed-minus-observed standard deviations are reduced from 8 to 4 W m−2 for longwave irradiance and from 15 to 6 W m−2 for shortwave irradiance. While agreement of computed TOA with CERES-derived irradiances improves, comparisons with surface observations show that model constrainment to the TOA does not reduce computation bias error at the surface. After constrainment, shortwave down at the surface has an increased bias (standard deviation) of 1% (0.5%) and longwave increases by 0.2% (0.1%). Clear-sky changes are negligible.

Full access
David A. Rutan
,
Seiji Kato
,
David R. Doelling
,
Fred G. Rose
,
Le Trang Nguyen
,
Thomas E. Caldwell
, and
Norman G. Loeb

Abstract

The Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System Synoptic (SYN1deg), edition 3, product provides climate-quality global 3-hourly 1° × 1°gridded top of atmosphere, in-atmosphere, and surface radiant fluxes. The in-atmosphere surface fluxes are computed hourly using a radiative transfer code based upon inputs from Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), 3-hourly geostationary (GEO) data, and meteorological assimilation data from the Goddard Earth Observing System. The GEO visible and infrared imager calibration is tied to MODIS to ensure uniform MODIS-like cloud properties across all satellite cloud datasets. Computed surface radiant fluxes are compared to surface observations at 85 globally distributed land (37) and ocean buoy (48) sites as well as several other publicly available global surface radiant flux data products. Computed monthly mean downward fluxes from SYN1deg have a bias (standard deviation) of 3.0 W m−2 (5.7%) for shortwave and −4.0 W m−2 (2.9%) for longwave compared to surface observations. The standard deviation between surface downward shortwave flux calculations and observations at the 3-hourly time scale is reduced when the diurnal cycle of cloud changes is explicitly accounted for. The improvement is smaller for surface downward longwave flux owing to an additional sensitivity to boundary layer temperature/humidity, which has a weaker diurnal cycle compared to clouds.

Full access
Ryan C. Scott
,
Fred G. Rose
,
Paul W. Stackhouse Jr.
,
Norman G. Loeb
,
Seiji Kato
,
David R. Doelling
,
David A. Rutan
,
Patrick C. Taylor
, and
William L. Smith Jr.

Abstract

Satellite observations from Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) radiometers have produced over two decades of world-class data documenting time–space variations in Earth’s top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiation budget. In addition to energy exchanges among Earth and space, climate studies require accurate information on radiant energy exchanges at the surface and within the atmosphere. The CERES Cloud Radiative Swath (CRS) data product extends the standard Single Scanner Footprint (SSF) data product by calculating a suite of radiative fluxes from the surface to TOA at the instantaneous CERES footprint scale using the NASA Langley Fu–Liou radiative transfer model. Here, we describe the CRS flux algorithm and evaluate its performance against a network of ground-based measurements and CERES TOA observations. CRS all-sky downwelling broadband fluxes show significant improvements in surface validation statistics relative to the parameterized fluxes on the SSF product, including a ∼30%–40% (∼20%) reduction in SW↓ (LW↓) root-mean-square error (RMSΔ), improved correlation coefficients, and the lowest SW↓ bias over most surface types. RMSΔ and correlation statistics improve over five different surface types under both overcast and clear-sky conditions. The global mean computed TOA outgoing LW radiation (OLR) remains within <1% (2–3 W m−2) of CERES observations, while the global mean reflected SW radiation (RSW) is excessive by ∼3.5% (∼9 W m−2) owing to cloudy-sky computation errors. As we highlight using data from two remote field campaigns, the CRS data product provides many benefits for studies requiring advanced surface radiative fluxes.

Free access
Alok K. Shrestha
,
Seiji Kato
,
Takmeng Wong
,
David A. Rutan
,
Walter F. Miller
,
Fred G. Rose
,
G. Louis Smith
,
Kristopher M. Bedka
,
Patrick Minnis
, and
Jose R. Fernandez

Abstract

The NOAA-9 Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner measured broadband shortwave, longwave, and total radiances from February 1985 through January 1987. These scanner radiances are reprocessed using the more recent Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) unfiltering algorithm. The scene information, including cloud properties, required for reprocessing is derived using Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data on board NOAA-9, while no imager data were used in the original ERBE unfiltering. The reprocessing increases the NOAA-9 ERBE scanner unfiltered longwave radiances by 1.4%–2.0% during daytime and 0.2%–0.3% during nighttime relative to those derived from the ERBE unfiltering algorithm. Similarly, the scanner unfiltered shortwave radiances increase by ~1% for clear ocean and land and decrease for all-sky ocean, land, and snow/ice by ~1%. The resulting NOAA-9 ERBE scanner unfiltered radiances are then compared with NOAA-9 nonscanner irradiances by integrating the ERBE scanner radiance over the nonscanner field of view. The comparison indicates that the integrated scanner radiances are larger by 0.9% for shortwave and 0.7% smaller for longwave. A sensitivity study shows that the one-standard-deviation uncertainties in the agreement are ±2.5%, ±1.2%, and ±1.8% for the shortwave, nighttime longwave, and daytime longwave irradiances, respectively. The NOAA-9 and ERBS nonscanner irradiances are also compared using 2 years of data. The comparison indicates that the NOAA-9 nonscanner shortwave, nighttime longwave, and daytime longwave irradiances are 0.3% larger, 0.6% smaller, and 0.4% larger, respectively. The longer observational record provided by the ERBS nonscanner plays a critical role in tying the CERES-like NOAA-9 ERBE scanner dataset from the mid-1980s to the present-day CERES scanner data record.

Full access