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  • Author or Editor: Donald L. Veal x
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August H. Auer Jr.
and
Donald L. Veal

Abstract

The dimensions of over 1500 natural ice crystals occurring in orographic and cumuliform clouds were obtained by studying the replicated crystals under microscopic magnification. Empirical relationships describing their dimensions over a larger range of sizes than previously reported have been developed.

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John D. Marwitz
,
August H. Auer Jr.
, and
Donald L. Veal

Abstract

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Wayne R. Sand
,
William A. Cooper
,
Marcia K. Politovich
, and
Donald L. Veal

Abstract

The characteristics of clouds which have led to airframe icing on an instrumented Beechcraft Super King Air are summarized. The icing encounters occurred at altitudes from 0–8000 m MSL, in summer and winter, in stratiform and cumuliform clouds, and at temperatures from 0 to −30°C. The characteristics of icing encounters in different areas and in different seasons are compared. The fraction of measurements exceeding various threshold values of liquid water content, average liquid water content over a given distance, volume-median droplet diameter, droplet concentration, ice crystal concentration, and potential ice accumulation are given. The effects of these cloud characteristics on aircraft performance were measured by comparing the rate of climb of the aircraft with ice to the rate of climb for the clean aircraft under the same conditions. Most icing encounters led to a reduction in the rate of climb that increased linearly with the path integral of the supercooled liquid water content. The volume-median diameter had little correlation with changes in performance. Some potentially hazardous conditions, which decreased the rate of climb capability of this aircraft by 7–9 m s−1, are also discussed.

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