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Dorothée Coppens
,
Ziad S. Haddad
, and
Eastwood Im

Abstract

Current passive-microwave rain-retrieval methods are largely based on databases built offline using cloud models. Since the vertical distribution of hydrometeors within the cloud has a large impact on upwelling brightness temperatures, a forward radiative transfer model can associate microwave radiances with different rain scenarios. Once such a database is available, to estimate the rain from measured brightness temperatures, one would look for the rain scenarios in the database whose associated radiances are closest to the measurements. To understand the uncertainties in this process, the authors have restricted their attention to tropical ocean cases and analyzed the marginal and joint distributions of the radiances observed by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite’s passive-microwave imager and of those in the databases used in the TRMM passive rain retrieval. The authors also calculated the covariances of the rain profiles and brightness temperatures in the TRMM passive-microwave database and derived a simple parametric model for the conditional variance, given measured radiances. These results are used to characterize the uncertainty inherent in the passive-microwave retrieval.

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K. Dieter Klaes
,
Jörg Ackermann
,
Craig Anderson
,
Yago Andres
,
Thomas August
,
Régis Borde
,
Bojan Bojkov
,
Leonid Butenko
,
Alessandra Cacciari
,
Dorothée Coppens
,
Marc Crapeau
,
Stephanie Guedj
,
Olivier Hautecoeur
,
Tim Hultberg
,
Rüdiger Lang
,
Stefanie Linow
,
Christian Marquardt
,
Rosemarie Munro
,
Carlo Pettirossi
,
Gabriele Poli
,
Francesca Ticconi
,
Olivier Vandermarcq
,
Mayte Vasquez
, and
Margarita Vazquez-Navarro

Abstract

After successful launch in November 2018 and successful commissioning of Metop-C, all three satellites of the EUMETSAT Polar System (EPS) are in orbit together and operational. EPS is part of the Initial Joint Polar System (IJPS) with the US (NOAA) and provides the service in the mid-morning orbit. The Metop satellites carry a mission payload of sounding and imaging instruments, which allow provision of support to operational meteorology and climate monitoring which are the main mission objectives for EPS. Applications include Numerical Weather Prediction, atmospheric composition monitoring, and marine meteorology. Climate monitoring is supported through the generation of long time series through the program duration of 20+ years. The payload was developed and contributed by partners, including NOAA, CNES, and ESA. EUMETSAT and ESA developed the space segment in cooperation. The system has proven its value since the first satellite Metop-A, with enhanced products at high reliability for atmospheric sounding, delivered a very strong positive impact on NWP and results beyond expectations for atmospheric composition and chemistry applications. Having multiple satellites in orbit - now three, has enabled enhanced and additional products with increased impact, like atmospheric motion vector products at latitudes not accessible to geostationary observations or increased probability of radio-occultations and hence atmospheric soundings with the GRAS instruments. The paper gives an overview on the system, the embarked payload and discusses the benefits of generated products for applications and services. The conclusions point to the follow-on system, currently under development and assuring continuity for another 20+ years.

Full access
K. Dieter Klaes
,
Jörg Ackermann
,
Craig Anderson
,
Yago Andres
,
Thomas August
,
Régis Borde
,
Bojan Bojkov
,
Leonid Butenko
,
Alessandra Cacciari
,
Dorothée Coppens
,
Marc Crapeau
,
Stephanie Guedj
,
Olivier Hautecoeur
,
Tim Hultberg
,
Rüdiger Lang
,
Stefanie Linow
,
Christian Marquardt
,
Rosemarie Munro
,
Carlo Pettirossi
,
Gabriele Poli
,
Francesca Ticconi
,
Olivier Vandermarcq
,
Mayte Vasquez
, and
Margarita Vazquez-Navarro

Abstract

After successful launch in November 2018 and successful commissioning of Metop-C, all three satellites of the EUMETSAT Polar System (EPS) are in orbit together and operational. EPS is part of the Initial Joint Polar System (IJPS) with the United States (NOAA) and provides the service in the midmorning orbit. The Metop satellites carry a mission payload of sounding and imaging instruments, which allow provision of support to operational meteorology and climate monitoring, which are the main mission objectives for EPS. Applications include numerical weather prediction, atmospheric composition monitoring, and marine meteorology. Climate monitoring is supported through the generation of long time series through the program duration of 20+ years. The payload was developed and contributed by partners, including NOAA, CNES, and ESA. EUMETSAT and ESA developed the space segment in cooperation. The system has proven its value since the first satellite Metop-A, with enhanced products at high reliability for atmospheric sounding, delivered a very strong positive impact on NWP and results beyond expectations for atmospheric composition and chemistry applications. Having multiple satellites in orbit—now three—has enabled enhanced and additional products with increased impact, like atmospheric motion vector products at latitudes not accessible to geostationary observations or increased probability of radio occultations and hence atmospheric soundings with the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Radio-Occultation Atmospheric Sounder (GRAS) instruments. The paper gives an overview of the system and the embarked payload and discusses the benefits of generated products for applications and services. The conclusions point to the follow-on system, currently under development and assuring continuity for another 20+ years.

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Paul Poli
,
Dick P. Dee
,
Roger Saunders
,
Viju O. John
,
Peter Rayer
,
Jörg Schulz
,
Kenneth Holmlund
,
Dorothee Coppens
,
Dieter Klaes
,
James E. Johnson
,
Asghar E. Esfandiari
,
Irina V. Gerasimov
,
Emily B. Zamkoff
,
Atheer F. Al-Jazrawi
,
David Santek
,
Mirko Albani
,
Pascal Brunel
,
Karsten Fennig
,
Marc Schröder
,
Shinya Kobayashi
,
Dieter Oertel
,
Wolfgang Döhler
,
Dietrich Spänkuch
, and
Stephan Bojinski

Abstract

To better understand the impacts of climate change, environmental monitoring capabilities must be enhanced by deploying additional and more accurate satellite- and ground-based (including in situ) sensors. In addition, reanalysis of observations collected decades ago but long forgotten can unlock precious information about the recent past. Historical, in situ observations mainly cover densely inhabited areas and frequently traveled routes. In contrast, large selections of early meteorological satellite data, waiting to be exploited today, provide information about remote areas unavailable from any other source. When initially collected, these satellite data posed great challenges to transmission and archiving facilities. As a result, data access was limited to the main teams of scientific investigators associated with the instruments. As archive media have aged, so have the mission scientists and other pioneers of satellite meteorology, who sometimes retired in possession of unique and unpublished information.

This paper presents examples of recently recovered satellite data records, including satellite imagery, early infrared hyperspectral soundings, and early microwave humidity soundings. Their value for climate applications today can be realized using methods and techniques that were not yet available when the data were first collected, including efficient and accurate observation simulators and data assimilation into reanalyses. Modern technical infrastructure allows serving entire mission datasets online, enabling easy access and exploration by a broad range of users, including new and old generations of climate scientists.

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