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Douglas Lowenthal, A. Gannet Hallar, Ian McCubbin, Robert David, Randolph Borys, Peter Blossey, Andreas Muhlbauer, Zhiming Kuang, and Mary Moore

Abstract

The Isotopic Fractionation in Snow (IFRACS) study was conducted at Storm Peak Laboratory (SPL) in northwestern Colorado during the winter of 2014 to elucidate snow growth processes in mixed-phase clouds. The isotopic composition (δ 18O and δD) of water vapor, cloud water, and snow in mixed-phase orographic clouds were measured simultaneously for the first time. The depletion of heavy isotopes [18O and deuterium (D)] was greatest for vapor, followed by snow, then cloud. The vapor, cloud, and snow compositions were highly correlated, suggesting similar cloud processes throughout the experiment. The isotopic composition of the water vapor was directly related to its concentration. Isotopic fractionation during condensation of vapor to cloud drops was accurately reproduced assuming equilibrium fractionation. This was not the case for snow, which grows by riming and vapor deposition. This implies stratification of vapor with altitude. The relationship between temperature at SPL and δ 18O was used to show that the snow gained most of its mass within 922 m above SPL. Relatively invariant deuterium excess (d) in vapor, cloud water, and snow from day to day suggests a constant vapor source and Rayleigh fractionation during transport. The diurnal variation of vapor d reflected the differences between surface and free-tropospheric air during the afternoon and early morning hours, respectively. These observations will be used to validate simulations of snow growth using an isotope-enabled mesoscale model with explicit microphysics.

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