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Carolina S. Vera, Paula K. Vigliarolo, and Ernesto Hugo Berbery


The most active winter synoptic-scale wave patterns over South America are identified using an extended empirical orthogonal function (EEOF) technique and are physically diagnosed using composite methods. Results show that the leading modes of short timescale variability propagate along two main paths: over the subtropical jet latitudes (∼30°S) and over the subpolar jet latitudes (∼60°S). This research focuses on the subtropical mode and its evolution over South America.

The observed structure of the systems associated with the subtropical mode resembles that of midlatitude baroclinic waves. Both cyclonic and anticyclonic perturbations display significant modifications in their three-dimensional structure as they evolve over extratropical and subtropical South America. While the upper-level perturbations are mostly unaffected when moving eastward, the lower-level perturbations advance following the shape of the Andes Mountains and exhibit an abrupt equatorward migration at the lee side of the mountains. As a result of such detachment, smaller eddy heat fluxes are observed in the vicinity of the orography and consequently a weaker eddy baroclinic growth is observed. Once the upper-level system is on the lee side, the perturbations acquire a more typical baroclinic wave structure and low-level intensification of the system occurs. The latter is largest around 1000 km east of the orography, where enhanced moisture transports from tropical latitudes along the eastern portion of the low-level cyclone favor precipitation occurrence over southeastern South America. Those precipitation processes seem to provide a diabatic source of energy that further contributes to the strengthening of the low-level cyclone. In addition, an intensification of the cyclone once over the ocean was found in 60% of the situations considered, which is consistent with previous research suggesting an additional source of moisture and heat flux due to the warm waters of the Brazil Current.

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Michael S. Fox-Rabinovitz, Ernesto Hugo Berbery, Lawrence L. Takacs, and Ravi C. Govindaraju


Multiyear (1987–97) limited ensemble integrations using a stretched-grid GCM, previously developed and experimented with by the authors, are employed for U.S. regional climate simulations. The ensemble members (six in total) are produced at two different regional resolutions: three members with 60-km and the other three members with 10-km regional resolution. The use of these two finer and coarser regional resolution ensemble members allows one to examine the impact of resolution on the overall quality of the simulated regional fields. For the multiyear ensemble simulations, an efficient regional downscaling to realistic mesoscales has been obtained. The ensemble means of the midtroposphere prognostic variables (height and meridional wind) show an overall good resemblance to the global reanalysis, especially for summer. Low-level features like the warm season Great Plains low-level jet are well represented in the simulations. During winter the 100-km simulations develop a southward wind east of the Rockies that is present neither in the reanalyses nor in the 60-km simulations. The analysis of the annual mean precipitation and its variance reveals that the ensemble simulations reproduce many of the observed features of a high-resolution rain gauge dataset analyzed on a 0.5° × 0.5° grid. Signal-to-noise ratios are larger than 1.5 s over a major part of the United States, especially over the Midwest and also over the mountainous regions like the Rockies and the Appalachians, suggesting that the orographic forcing is contributing to a larger signal. The ratios are smaller toward the eastern and western U.S. coastlines. This result could be attributed, at least in part, to limits in the representation of the land–sea contrasts.

For comparison purposes, an additional simulation has been performed using a global uniform 2° × 2.5° grid with the same number of global grid points as those of the above stretched grids. The stretched-grid GCM ensemble means show, overall, a better regional depiction of features than those of the uniform-grid GCM.

The results of the study show that even using limited ensemble integrations with a state-of-the-art stretched-grid GCM is beneficial for reducing the uncertainty of the multiyear regional climate simulation, especially when using finer 60-km regional resolution.

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