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P. Ernest Raj, S. Sharma, P. C. S. Devara, and G. Pandithurai

Abstract

Laser scintillation observations were carried out over a flat surface in different atmospheric conditions on 33 separate days during March 1990–April 1991 and were analyzed and studied. The principal results of the analysis reveal (i) marked seasonal variations in optical turbulence (through the measurement of refractive-index structure function Cn 2) and scintillation intensity (measured in terms of percent modulation Pm) with maximum Cn 2 or Pm during winter (December–February) and minimum during premonsoon (March–May) seasons; (ii) close correspondence among the variations in Cn 2, Pm, and atmospheric temperature; (iii) lower values of Cn 2 during cloudy sky as compared to clear sky conditions; and (iv) agreement between the observations and theory in respect of the pathlength dependence of Cn 2 and Pm. The results are discussed with reference to the possible meteorological origin of turbulence, and the importance of the study for making measurements of optical turbulence remotely over inaccessible regions is highlighted.

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P. C. S. Devara, P. Ernest Raj, B. S. Murthy, G. Pandithurai, S. Sharma, and K. G. Vernekar

Abstract

Coordinated experiments to study the nocturnal lower atmosphere were conducted on selected nights during April–August 1991 using an argon ion lidar and a Doppler sodar at the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune (18°32′N, 73°51′E, 559 m MSL), India. The lidar and the sodar have been operated simultaneously so as to detect the nocturnal atmospheric structure in the common air volume sampled by both the techniques. By analyzing the thermal and aerosol structures in the vertical profiles of the sodar and the lidar signal intensity, the nocturnal mixed-layer height or ground-based inversion height and the stably stratified or multiple elevated layers aloft have been determined. The top of the nocturnal ground-based inversion observed in the sodar records is taken as the height above the ground where the negative vertical gradient in aerosol concentration first reaches a maximum in the lidar records. The results of the study indicate an agreement between the lidar-derived mixing depth and the sodar-derived heights of the ground-based inversion and the low-level wind maximum.

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Thara V. Prabha, A. Khain, R. S. Maheshkumar, G. Pandithurai, J. R. Kulkarni, M. Konwar, and B. N. Goswami

Abstract

Analysis of the microphysical structure of deep convective clouds using in situ measurements during the Cloud Aerosol Interaction and Precipitation Enhancement Experiment (CAIPEEX) over the Indian peninsular region is presented. It is shown that droplet size distributions (DSDs) in highly polluted premonsoon clouds are substantially narrower than DSDs in less polluted monsoon clouds. High values of DSD dispersion (0.3–0.6) and its vertical variation in the transient and monsoon clouds are related largely to the existence of small cloud droplets with diameters less than 10 μm, which were found at nearly all levels. This finding indicates the existence of a continuous generation of the smallest droplets at different heights. In some cases this generation of small droplets leads to the formation of bimodal and even multimodal DSDs. The formation of bimodal DSDs is especially pronounced in monsoon clouds. Observational evidence is presented to suggest that in-cloud nucleation at elevated layers is a fundamental mechanism for producing multimodal drop size distribution in monsoon clouds as well as in most deep convective clouds. These findings indicate that inclusion of continued nucleation away from the cloud base into numerical models should be considered to predict microphysics and precipitation of clouds in monsoons and other cloud-related phenomena.

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P. Ernest Raj, P. C. S. Devara, R. S. Maheskumar, G. Pandithurai, K. K. Dani, S. K. Saha, S. M. Sonbawne, and Y. K. Tiwari

Abstract

A compact, hand-held multiband sun photometer (ozone monitor) has been used to measure total precipitable water content (PWC) at the low-latitude tropical station in Pune, India (18°32′N, 73°51′E). Data collected in the daytime (0730–1800 LT) during the period from May 1998 to September 2001 have been used here. The daytime average PWC value at this station is 1.13 cm, and the average for only the clear-sky days is 0.75 cm. PWC values between 0.75 and 1.0 cm have the maximum frequency of occurrence. There is a large day-to-day variability due to varied sky and meteorological conditions. Mainly two types of diurnal variations in PWC are observed. The one occurs in the premonsoon summer months of April and May and shows that forenoon values are smaller than afternoon values. The other type occurs in November and December and shows a minimum around noontime. There is a diurnal asymmetry in PWC in which, on the majority of the days, the mean afternoon value is greater than the forenoon value. This asymmetry is more pronounced in the summer and southwest monsoon months (i.e., March–June). Monthly mean PWC is highest in September and lowest in December. The increase in PWC from the winter (December–February) to summer (March–May) seasons is about 50% and from the summer to southwest monsoon seasons (June–September) is almost 98%. Sun photometer–derived PWC shows a fairly good relationship with surface relative humidity and radiosonde-derived PWC, with a correlation coefficient as high as 0.80.

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P. C. S. Devara, P. E. Raj, K. K. Dani, G. Pandithurai, M. C. R. Kalapureddy, S. M. Sonbawne, Y. J. Rao, and S. K. Saha

Abstract

Lidar profiling of atmospheric aerosols and clouds in the lower atmosphere has been in progress at the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM), Pune (18°32′N, 73°52′E, 559 m MSL), India, for more than two decades. To enlarge the scope of these studies, an eye-safe new portable dual polarization micropulse lidar (DPMPL) has been developed and installed at this station. The system utilizes a diode-pumped solid-state (DPSS) neodymium–yttrium–aluminum–garnet (Nd:YAG) laser second harmonic, with either parallel polarization or alternate parallel and perpendicular polarization, as a transmitter and a Schmidt–Cassegrain telescope, with a high-speed detection and data acquisition and processing system, as a receiver. This online system in real-time mode provides backscatter intensity profiles up to about 75 km at every minute in both parallel and perpendicular polarization channels, corresponding to each state of polarization of the transmitted laser radiation. Thus, this versatile lidar system is expected to play a vital role not only in atmospheric aerosol and cloud physics research and environmental monitoring but also in weather and climate modeling studies of the impact of radiative forcing on the earth–atmosphere radiation balance and hydrological cycle. This paper provides a detailed description of Asia’s only lidar facility and presents initial observations of space–time variations of boundary layer structure from experiments carried out during winter 2005/06.

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