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  • Author or Editor: Iracema F. A. Cavalcanti x
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Iracema F. A. Cavalcanti
,
Chris K. Folland
, and
Andrew W. Colman
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Iracema F. A. Cavalcanti
,
José A. Marengo
,
Prakki Satyamurty
,
Carlos A. Nobre
,
Igor Trosnikov
,
José Paulo Bonatti
,
Antonio Ocimar Manzi
,
Tatiana Tarasova
,
Luciano P. Pezzi
,
Cassiano D'Almeida
,
Gilvan Sampaio
,
Christopher C. Castro
,
Marcos B. Sanches
, and
Hélio Camargo

Abstract

The Center for Weather Forecasting and Climate Studies–Center for Ocean–Land–Atmosphere Studies (CPTEC–COLA) atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) is integrated with nine initial conditions for 10 yr to obtain the model climate in an ensemble mode. The global climatological characteristics simulated by the model are compared with observational data, and emphasis is given to the Southern Hemisphere and South America. Evaluation of the model's performance is presented by showing systematic errors of several variables, and anomaly correlation and reproducibility are applied to precipitation. The model is able to simulate the main features of the global climate, and the results are consistent with analyses of other AGCMs. The seasonal cycle is reproduced well in all analyzed variables, and systematic errors occur at the same regions in different seasons. The Southern Hemisphere convergence zones are simulated reasonably well, although the model overestimates precipitation in the southern portions and underestimates it in the northern portions of these systems. The high- and low-level main circulation features such as the subtropical highs, subtropical jet streams, and storm tracks are depicted well by the model, albeit with different intensities from the reanalysis. The stationary waves of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres are weaker in the model; however, the dominant wavenumbers are similar to the observations. The energy budget analysis shows values of some radiative fluxes that are close to observations, but the unbalanced fluxes in the atmosphere and at the surface indicate that the radiation and cloud scheme parameterizations need to be improved. Besides these improvements, changes in the convection scheme and higher horizontal resolution to represent orographic effects better are being planned to improve the model's performance.

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