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  • Author or Editor: J. E. Hare x
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J. B. Edson, A. A. Hinton, K. E. Prada, J. E. Hare, and C. W. Fairall


This paper describes two methods for computing direct covariance fluxes from anemometers mounted on moving platforms at sea. These methods involve the use of either a strapped-down or gyro-stabilized system that are used to compute terms that correct for the 1) instantaneous tilt of the anemometer due to the pitch, roll, and heading variations of the platform; 2) angular velocities at the anemometer due to rotation of the platform about its local coordinate system axes; and 3) translational velocities of the platform with respect to a fixed frame of reference. The paper provides a comparison of fluxes computed with three strapped-down systems from two recent field experiments. These comparisons shows that the direct covariance fluxes are in good agreement with fluxes derived using the bulk aerodynamic method. Additional comparisons between the ship system and the research platform FLIP indicate that flow distortion systematically increases the momentum flux by 15%. Evidence suggests that this correction is appropriate for a commonly used class of research vessels. The application of corrections for both motion contamination and flow distortion results in direct covariance flux estimates with an uncertainty of approximately 10%–20%.

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C. W. Fairall, A. B. White, J. B. Edson, and J. E. Hare


The NOAA Environmental Technology Laboratory air–sea interaction group and collaborators at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution have developed a seagoing measurement system suitable for mounting aboard ships. During its development, it was deployed on three different ships and recently completed three cruises in the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment as well as two cruises off the west coast of the United States. The system includes tower-mounted micrometeorological sensors for direct covariance flux measurements and a variety of remote sensors for profiling winds, temperature, moisture, and turbulence. A sonic anemometer/thermometer and a fast-response infrared hygrometer are used for turbulent fluxes. Winds are obtained from a stabilized Doppler radar (wind profiler) and a Doppler sodar. Returned power and Doppler width from these systems are used to deduce profiles of small-scale turbulence. A lidar ceilometer and a microwave radiometer are used to obtain cloud properties. Radiative fluxes are measured with standard pyranometers and pyrgeometers. A conventional rawinsonde system gives intermittent reference soundings. The system is used to study surface fluxes, boundary layer dynamics, cloud–radiative interactions, and entrainment. It has also proven useful in satellite calibration/validations. Following a description of the systems and methods, various examples of data and results are given from recent deployments in the North Atlantic, off the United States west coast, and in the equatorial Pacific Ocean.

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