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J. G. EDINGER and M. G. WURTELE

Abstract

Extensive observations were made on aircraft flights in the marine layer over the Pacific Ocean off the coast of southern California. We interpret some of the cloud patterns as convective and some as gravity wave phenomena. The ship wave and the three-dimensional lee wave are observed and analyzed in terms of the accompanying soundings, as are other characteristic cloud structures. From photographs of glories in the stratus tops, angles of back-scattering can be determined with sufficient accuracy to identify cloud-drop size distributions in accordance with Mie scattering theory.

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J. G. Edinger and R. R. Rapp

Abstract

Transosonde balloon data are analyzed to provide a measure of the dispersion on a large scale in the upper atmosphere. An expression for the autocorrelation function is inferred from synoptic experience and is applied to autocorrelation values computed from the balloon data. Taylor's theorem is applied to this function to compute dispersion out to ten days. A comparison is made with direct computation at two days.

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F. F. Hall Jr., J. G. Edinger, and W. D. Neff

Abstract

The turbulent temperature structure and winds in thermal convective plumes over prairie grassland have been investigated with an acoustic echo sounder system. Three spaced acoustic antennas, with two inclined at 45° elevation, were used to provide plume shape information and Doppler-derived total wind-vector patterns between heights of 70 and 500 m. Supporting in situ measurements were made on a 15 m tower, with a tethered balloon-supported Boundary Layer Profiler, and from a light aircraft. The most probable orientation of the plumes was nearly vertical, but frequent upwind and downwind tilts were also observed. Maximum positive vertical velocities in the plumes at midday were near 2 m s−1, while maximum downward currents were one-half this value. Acoustic echoes from regions above the mixed layer, corresponding in height to an elevated temperature inversion, correlate well with regions of maximum wind shear.

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