Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 4 of 4 items for :

  • Author or Editor: J. M. Castanheira x
  • Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences x
  • Refine by Access: Content accessible to me x
Clear All Modify Search
C. A. F. Marques
and
J. M. Castanheira

Abstract

An energetics formulation is here introduced that enables an explicit evaluation for the conversion rates between available potential energy and kinetic energy, the nonlinear interactions of both energy forms, and their generation and dissipation rates, in both the zonal wavenumber and vertical mode domains. The conversion rates between available potential energy and kinetic energy are further decomposed into the contributions by the rotational (Rossby) and divergent (gravity) components of the circulation field. The computed energy terms allow one to formulate a detailed energy cycle describing the flow of energy among the zonal mean and eddy components, and also among the barotropic and baroclinic components. This new energetics formulation is a development of the 3D normal-mode energetics scheme. The new formulation is applied on an assessment of the energetics of winter (December–February) circulation in the 40-yr ECMWF Re-Analysis (ERA-40), the 25-yr Japan Meteorological Agency Reanalysis (JRA-25), and the NCEP–Department of Energy Reanalysis 2 (NCEP-R2) datasets.

Full access
J. M. Castanheira
,
H-F. Graf
,
C. C. DaCamara
, and
A. Rocha

Abstract

The 3D structures of the free oscillations of an adiabatic and hydrostatic atmosphere around a basic state at rest were used as a physical filtering for atmospheric data. This filtering procedure allows for the consideration of the three primitive variables (u, υ, ϕ) over the whole atmosphere simultaneously. Accordingly, the computed statistics do not simply rely on the information provided by a single variable of circulation, such as the 500-hPa geopotential field.

Using this method, two classical patterns were isolated in the barotropic component of the circulation, one resembling the Pacific–North America (PNA) pattern, the other similar to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) pattern in summer. Associating the barotropic and the second baroclinic components, a coupling in variability was retrieved between the strength of the winter stratospheric polar vortex and the tropospheric circulation over the North Atlantic. Until now these modes had only been recovered by means of statistical analysis. This study shows their existence in physically filtered fields.

The obtained results make clear that the observed winter pattern of NAO is not a simple variability mode of the atmosphere, but results instead from mean flow wave interaction that modulates tropospheric planetary Rossby waves.

The association between the NAO circulation variability patterns and the anomalies of the 850-hPa temperature field was also investigated.

Full access
J. M. Castanheira
,
M. L. R. Liberato
,
L. de la Torre
,
H-F. Graf
, and
C. C. DaCamara

Abstract

An analysis is performed on the dynamical coupling between the variability of the extratropical stratospheric and tropospheric circulations during the Northern Hemisphere winter. Obtained results provide evidence that in addition to the well-known Charney and Drazin mechanism by which vertical propagation of baroclinic Rossby waves is nonlinearly influenced by the zonal mean zonal wind, topographic forcing constitutes another important mechanism by which nonlinearity is introduced in the troposphere–stratosphere wave-driven coupled variability. On the one hand, vortex variability is forced by baroclinic Rossby wave bursts, with positive (negative) peaks of baroclinic Rossby wave energy occurring during rapid vortex decelerations (accelerations). On the other hand, barotropic Rossby waves of zonal wavenumbers s = 1 and 3 respond to the vortex state, and strong evidence is presented that such a response is mediated by changes of the topographic forcing due to zonal mean zonal wind anomalies progressing downward from the stratosphere. It is shown that wavenumbers s = 1 and 3 are the dominant Fourier components of the topography in the high-latitude belt where the zonal mean zonal wind anomalies are stronger; moreover, obtained results are in qualitative agreement with the analytical solution provided by the simple topographic wave model of Charney and Eliassen. Finally, evidence is provided that changes of barotropic long (s ≤ 3) Rossby waves associated with vortex variability reproduce a NAO-like dipole over the Atlantic Ocean but no dipole is formed over the Pacific Ocean. Moreover, results suggest that the nonlinear wave response to topographic forcing may explain the spatial changes of the NAO correlation patterns that have been found in previous studies.

Full access
M. L. R. Liberato
,
J. M. Castanheira
,
L. de la Torre
,
C. C. DaCamara
, and
L. Gimeno

Abstract

A study is performed on the energetics of planetary wave forcing associated with the variability of the northern winter polar vortex. The analysis relies on a three-dimensional normal mode expansion of the atmospheric general circulation that allows partitioning the total (i.e., kinetic + available potential) atmospheric energy into the energy associated with Rossby and inertio-gravity modes with barotropic and baroclinic vertical structures. The analysis mainly departs from traditional ones in respect to the wave forcing, which is here assessed in terms of total energy amounts associated with the waves instead of heat and momentum fluxes. Such an approach provides a sounder framework than traditional ones based on Eliassen–Palm (EP) flux diagnostics of wave propagation and related concepts of refractive indices and critical lines, which are strictly valid only in the cases of small-amplitude waves and in the context of the Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin–Jeffries (WKBJ) approximation.

Positive (negative) anomalies of the energy associated with the first two baroclinic modes of the planetary Rossby wave with zonal wavenumber 1 are followed by a downward progression of negative (positive) anomalies of the vortex strength. A signature of the vortex vacillation is also well apparent in the lagged correlation curves between the wave energy and the vortex strength. The analysis of the correlations between individual Rossby modes and the vortex strength further confirmed the result from linear theory that the waves that force the vortex are those associated with the largest zonal and meridional scales.

The two composite analyses of displacement- and split-type stratospheric sudden warming (SSW) events have revealed different dynamics. Displacement-type SSWs are forced by positive anomalies of the energy associated with the first two baroclinic modes of planetary Rossby waves with zonal wavenumber 1; split-type SSWs are in turn forced by positive anomalies of the energy associated with the planetary Rossby wave with zonal wavenumber 2, and the barotropic mode appears as the most important component. In respect to stratospheric final warming (SFW) events, obtained results suggest that the wave dynamics is similar to the one in displacement-type SSW events.

Full access