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  • Author or Editor: James R. Campbell x
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James R. Campbell
,
Simone Lolli
,
Jasper R. Lewis
,
Yu Gu
, and
Ellsworth J. Welton

Abstract

One year of continuous ground-based lidar observations (2012) is analyzed for single-layer cirrus clouds at the NASA Micro Pulse Lidar Network site at the Goddard Space Flight Center to investigate top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) annual net daytime radiative forcing properties. A slight positive net daytime forcing is estimated (i.e., warming): 0.07–0.67 W m−2 in sample-relative terms, which reduces to 0.03–0.27 W m−2 in absolute terms after normalizing to unity based on a 40% midlatitude occurrence frequency rate estimated from satellite data. Results are based on bookend solutions for lidar extinction-to-backscatter (20 and 30 sr) and corresponding retrievals of the 532-nm cloud extinction coefficient. Uncertainties due to cloud undersampling, attenuation effects, sample selection, and lidar multiple scattering are described. A net daytime cooling effect is found from the very thinnest clouds (cloud optical depth ≤ 0.01), which is attributed to relatively high solar zenith angles. A relationship involving positive/negative daytime cloud forcing is demonstrated as a function of solar zenith angle and cloud-top temperature. These properties, combined with the influence of varying surface albedos, are used to conceptualize how daytime cloud forcing likely varies with latitude and season, with cirrus clouds exerting less positive forcing and potentially net TOA cooling approaching the summer poles (not ice and snow covered) versus greater warming at the equator. The existence of such a gradient would lead cirrus to induce varying daytime TOA forcing annually and seasonally, making it a far greater challenge than presently believed to constrain the daytime and diurnal cirrus contributions to global radiation budgets.

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Kenneth Sassen
,
James R. Campbell
,
Jiang Zhu
,
Pavlos Kollias
,
Matthew Shupe
, and
Christopher Williams

Abstract

During the recent Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers (CRYSTAL) Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (FACE) field campaign in southern Florida, rain showers were probed by a 0.523-μm lidar and three (0.32-, 0.86-, and 10.6-cm wavelength) Doppler radars. The full repertoire of backscattering phenomena was observed in the melting region, that is, the various lidar and radar dark and bright bands. In contrast to the ubiquitous 10.6-cm (S band) radar bright band, only intermittent evidence is found at 0.86 cm (K band), and no clear examples of the radar bright band are seen at 0.32 cm (W band), because of the dominance of non-Rayleigh scattering effects. Analysis also reveals that the relatively inconspicuous W-band radar dark band is due to non-Rayleigh effects in large water-coated snowflakes that are high in the melting layer. The lidar dark band exclusively involves mixed-phase particles and is centered where the shrinking snowflakes collapse into raindrops—the point at which spherical particle backscattering mechanisms first come into prominence during snowflake melting. The traditional (S band) radar brightband peak occurs low in the melting region, just above the lidar dark-band minimum. This position is close to where the W-band reflectivities and Doppler velocities reach their plateaus but is well above the height at which the S-band Doppler velocities stop increasing. Thus, the classic radar bright band is dominated by Rayleigh dielectric scattering effects in the few largest melting snowflakes.

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Erica K. Dolinar
,
James R. Campbell
,
Jared W. Marquis
,
Anne E. Garnier
, and
Bryan M. Karpowicz

Abstract

Satellite-based measurements of global ice cloud microphysical properties are sampled to develop a novel set of physical parameterizations, relating to cloud layer temperature and effective diameter De , that can be implemented for two separate applications: in numerical weather prediction models and lidar-based cloud radiative forcing studies. Ice cloud optical properties (i.e., spectral scattering and absorption) are estimated based on the effective size and habit mixture of the cloud particles. Historically, the ice cloud De has been parameterized from aircraft in situ measurements. However, aircraft-based parameterizations are opportunistic in that they only represent specific types of clouds (e.g., convective anvil, tropopause-topped cirrus) in the regions in which they were sampled and, in some cases, are limited in fully resolving the entire vertical cloud layer. Breaking away from the aircraft-based parameterization paradigm, this study is the first of its kind to attempt a parameterization of De as a function of temperature, ice water content (IWC), and lidar-derived extinction from satellite-based global oceanic measurements of ice clouds. Data from both active and passive remote sensing sensors from two of NASA’s A-Train satellites, CloudSat and CALIPSO, are collected to guide development of globally robust parameterizations of all ice cloud types and one exclusively for cirrus clouds.

Significance Statement

We derived unique parameterizations of ice crystal effective size from global satellite measurements in an effort to more robustly and consistently represent ice clouds in numerical models for weather forecasting and climate energy balance studies. Based on our results, effective ice crystal size is easily solved based on temperature and visible cloud translucence. By knowing the size of the ice crystals, we can then estimate cloud scattering and absorption. In comparison with aircraft-based parameterizations, the satellite data reveal that ice crystal effective sizes are much smaller, on global average, for ice clouds occurring in relatively warm layers (>230 K), indicating that many ice clouds are more reflective than previously believed.

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James R. Campbell
,
Erica K. Dolinar
,
Simone Lolli
,
Gilberto J. Fochesatto
,
Yu Gu
,
Jasper R. Lewis
,
Jared W. Marquis
,
Theodore M. McHardy
,
David R. Ryglicki
, and
Ellsworth J. Welton

Abstract

Cirrus cloud daytime top-of-the-atmosphere radiative forcing (TOA CRF) is estimated for a 2-yr NASA Micro-Pulse Lidar Network (532 nm; MPLNET) dataset collected at Fairbanks, Alaska. Two-year-averaged daytime TOA CRF is estimated to be between −1.08 and 0.78 W·m−2 (from −0.49 to 1.10 W·m−2 in 2017, and from −1.67 to 0.47 W·m−2 in 2018). This subarctic study completes a now trilogy of MPLNET ground-based cloud forcing investigations, following midlatitude and tropical studies by Campbell et al. at Greenbelt, Maryland, and Lolli et al. at Singapore. Campbell et al. hypothesize a global meridional daytime TOA CRF gradient that begins as positive at the equator (2.20–2.59 W·m−2 over land and from −0.46 to 0.42 W·m−2 over ocean at Singapore), becomes neutral in the midlatitudes (0.03–0.27 W·m−2 over land in Maryland), and turns negative moving poleward. This study does not completely confirm Campbell et al., as values are not found as exclusively negative. Evidence in historical reanalysis data suggests that daytime cirrus forcing in and around the subarctic likely once was exclusively negative. Increasing tropopause heights, inducing higher and colder cirrus, have likely increased regional forcing over the last 40 years. We hypothesize that subarctic interannual cloud variability is likely a considerable influence on global cirrus cloud forcing sensitivity, given the irregularity of polar versus midlatitude synoptic weather intrusions. This study and hypothesis lay the basis for an extrapolation of these MPLNET experiments to satellite-based lidar cirrus cloud datasets.

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David A. Peterson
,
Michael D. Fromm
,
Jeremy E. Solbrig
,
Edward J. Hyer
,
Melinda L. Surratt
, and
James R. Campbell

Abstract

Intense wildfires occasionally generate fire-triggered storms, known as pyrocumulonimbus (pyroCb), that can inject smoke particles and trace gases into the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS). This study develops the first pyroCb detection algorithm using three infrared (IR) channels from the imager on board GOES-West (GOES-15). The algorithm first identifies deep convection near active fires via the longwave IR brightness temperature, distinguishing between midtropospheric and UTLS injections. During daytime, unique pyroCb microphysical properties are characterized by a medium-wave brightness temperature that is significantly larger than that in the longwave, allowing for separation of pyroCb from other deep convection. A cloud-opacity test reduces potential false detections. Application of this algorithm to 88 intense wildfires observed during the 2013 fire season in western North America resulted in successful detection of individual intense events, pyroCb embedded within traditional convection, and multiple, short-lived pulses of pyroconvective activity. Comparisons with a community inventory indicate that this algorithm captures the majority of pyroCb. The primary limitation is that pyroCb anvils can be small relative to GOES-West pixel size, especially in regions with large viewing angles. The algorithm is also sensitive to some false positives from traditional convection that either ingests smoke or exhibits extreme updraft velocities. A total of 26 pyroCb events are inventoried, including 31 individual pulses, all of which can inject smoke into the UTLS. Six of the inventoried intense pyroCb were not previously documented. Near-real-time application of this algorithm can be extended to other regions and to next-generation geostationary sensors, which offer significant advantages for pyroCb and fire detection.

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Matthew D. Shupe
,
Von P. Walden
,
Edwin Eloranta
,
Taneil Uttal
,
James R. Campbell
,
Sandra M. Starkweather
, and
Masataka Shiobara

Abstract

Cloud observations over the past decade from six Arctic atmospheric observatories are investigated to derive estimates of cloud occurrence fraction, vertical distribution, persistence in time, diurnal cycle, and boundary statistics. Each observatory has some combination of cloud lidar, radar, ceilometer, and/or interferometer for identifying and characterizing clouds. By optimally combining measurements from these instruments, it is found that annual cloud occurrence fractions are 58%–83% at the Arctic observatories. There is a clear annual cycle wherein clouds are least frequent in the winter and most frequent in the late summer and autumn. Only in Eureka, Nunavut, Canada, is the annual cycle shifted such that the annual minimum is in the spring with the maximum in the winter. Intersite monthly variability is typically within 10%–15% of the all-site average. Interannual variability at specific sites is less than 13% for any given month and, typically, is less than 3% for annual total cloud fractions. Low-level clouds are most persistent at the observatories. The median cloud persistence for all observatories is 3–5 h; however, 5% of cloud systems at far western Arctic sites are observed to occur for longer than 100 consecutive hours. Weak diurnal variability in cloudiness is observed at some sites, with a daily minimum in cloud occurrence near solar noon for those seasons for which the sun is above the horizon for at least part of the day.

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Simone Lolli
,
James R. Campbell
,
Jasper R. Lewis
,
Yu Gu
,
Jared W. Marquis
,
Boon Ning Chew
,
Soo-Chin Liew
,
Santo V. Salinas
, and
Ellsworth J. Welton

Abstract

Daytime top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) cirrus cloud radiative forcing (CRF) is estimated for cirrus clouds observed in ground-based lidar observations at Singapore in 2010 and 2011. Estimates are derived both over land and water to simulate conditions over the broader Maritime Continent archipelago of Southeast Asia. Based on bookend constraints of the lidar extinction-to-backscatter ratio (20 and 30 sr), used to solve extinction and initialize corresponding radiative transfer model simulations, relative daytime TOA CRF is estimated at 2.858–3.370 W m−2 in 2010 (both 20 and 30 sr, respectively) and 3.078–3.329 W m−2 in 2011 and over water between −0.094 and 0.541 W m−2 in 2010 and −0.598 and 0.433 W m−2 in 2011 (both 30 and 20 sr, respectively). After normalizing these estimates for an approximately 80% local satellite-estimated cirrus cloud occurrence rate, they reduce in absolute daytime terms to 2.198–2.592 W m−2 in 2010 and 2.368–2.561 W m−2 in 2011 over land and −0.072–0.416 W m−2 in 2010 and −0.460–0.333 W m−2 in 2011 over water. These annual estimates are mostly consistent despite a tendency toward lower relative cloud-top heights in 2011. Uncertainties are described. Estimates support the open hypothesis of a meridional hemispheric gradient in cirrus cloud daytime TOA CRF globally, varying from positive near the equator to presumably negative approaching the non-ice-covered poles. They help expand upon the paradigm, however, by conceptualizing differences zonally between overland and overwater forcing that differ significantly. More global oceans are likely subject to negative daytime TOA CRF than previously implied.

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James R. Campbell
,
Cui Ge
,
Jun Wang
,
Ellsworth J. Welton
,
Anthony Bucholtz
,
Edward J. Hyer
,
Elizabeth A. Reid
,
Boon Ning Chew
,
Soo-Chin Liew
,
Santo V. Salinas
,
Simone Lolli
,
Kathleen C. Kaku
,
Peng Lynch
,
Mastura Mahmud
,
Maznorizan Mohamad
, and
Brent N. Holben

ABSTRACT

This work describes some of the most extensive ground-based observations of the aerosol profile collected in Southeast Asia to date, highlighting the challenges in simulating these observations with a mesoscale perspective. An 84-h WRF Model coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem) mesoscale simulation of smoke particle transport at Kuching, Malaysia, in the southern Maritime Continent of Southeast Asia is evaluated relative to a unique collection of continuous ground-based lidar, sun photometer, and 4-h radiosonde profiling. The period was marked by relatively dry conditions, allowing smoke layers transported to the site unperturbed by wet deposition to be common regionally. The model depiction is reasonable overall. Core thermodynamics, including land/sea-breeze structure, are well resolved. Total model smoke extinction and, by proxy, mass concentration are low relative to observation. Smoke emissions source products are likely low because of undersampling of fires in infrared sun-synchronous satellite products, which is exacerbated regionally by endemic low-level cloud cover. Differences are identified between the model mass profile and the lidar profile, particularly during periods of afternoon convective mixing. A static smoke mass injection height parameterized for this study potentially influences this result. The model does not resolve the convective mixing of aerosol particles into the lower free troposphere or the enhancement of near-surface extinction from nighttime cooling and hygroscopic effects.

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