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April Hiscox
,
Sudheer Bhimireddy
,
Junming Wang
,
David A. R. Kristovich
,
Jielun Sun
,
Edward G. Patton
,
Steve P. Oncley
, and
William O. J. Brown

Abstract

Stable boundary layers are still a relatively problematic component of atmospheric modeling, despite their frequent occurrence. While general agreement exists that Monin–Obukhov similarity is not applicable in the stable boundary layer (SBL) due to the nonhomogeneous, nonstationary flow, no universal organizing theory for the surface SBL has been presented. The Stable Atmospheric Variability and Transport (SAVANT) field campaign took place in the fall of 2018 to explore under what conditions shallow drainage flow is generated. The campaign took place in an agricultural setting and covered the period of both pre- and postharvest, allowing for not only a basic exploration of the boundary layer but also a robust dataset for applied agricultural understanding of aerosol dispersion and impacts of changes in surface cover on drainage flows. This article provides a description of the field campaign. Examples of publicly available data products are presented, as well as examples of shallow drainage flow and corresponding lidar measurements of dispersion. Additionally, the field campaign was used to provide educational opportunities for students from several disciplines, and the outcomes of these joint educational ventures are discussed as models for future collaborations.

Open access
Gregory S. Poulos
,
William Blumen
,
David C. Fritts
,
Julie K. Lundquist
,
Jielun Sun
,
Sean P. Burns
,
Carmen Nappo
,
Robert Banta
,
Rob Newsom
,
Joan Cuxart
,
Enric Terradellas
,
Ben Balsley
, and
Michael Jensen

The Cooperative Atmosphere–Surface Exchange Study—1999 (CASES-99) refers to a field experiment carried out in southeast Kansas during October 1999 and the subsequent program of investigation. Comprehensive data, primarily taken during the nighttime but typically including the evening and morning transition, supports data analyses, theoretical studies, and state-of-the-art numerical modeling in a concerted effort by participants to investigate four areas of scientific interest. The choice of these scientific topics is motivated by both the need to delineate physical processes that characterize the stable boundary layer, which are as yet not clearly understood, and the specific scientific goals of the investigators. Each of the scientific goals should be largely achievable with the measurements taken, as is shown with preliminary analysis within the scope of three of the four scientific goals. Underlying this effort is the fundamental motivation to eliminate deficiencies in surface layer and turbulent diffusion parameterizations in atmospheric models, particularly where the Richardson number exceeds 0.25. This extensive nocturnal boundary layer (NBL) dataset is available to the scientific community at large, and the CASES-99 participants encourage all interested parties to utilize it.

These preliminary analyses show that during nights where weak (< 2 m s−1) surface winds and strong static stability near the surface (exceeding 150 C km−1 to 20 m AGL) might otherwise indicate essentially nonturbulent conditions, that various, sometimes undefined, atmospheric phenomena can generate significant turbulent mixing, and therefore significant turbulent fluxes. In many cases, a jet structure will form in the NBL between 50 and 200 m AGL, resulting in strong shear between the surface and jet maximum. Consequently, though surface winds are weak, turbulence can be a significant feature in the stable NBL. Further, contrary to some previous work studying nocturnal jets over the Great Plains, the wind direction in the jet is often influenced by an inertial oscillation and seldom confined to the southerly quadrant (e.g., the Great Plains low-level jet).

Full access
Xuhui Lee
,
Zhiqiu Gao
,
Chaolin Zhang
,
Fei Chen
,
Yinqiao Hu
,
Weimei Jiang
,
Shuhua Liu
,
Longhua Lu
,
Jielun Sun
,
Jiemin Wang
,
Zhihua Zeng
,
Qiang Zhang
,
Ming Zhao
, and
Mingyu Zhou
Full access
James Edson
,
Timothy Crawford
,
Jerry Crescenti
,
Tom Farrar
,
Nelson Frew
,
Greg Gerbi
,
Costas Helmis
,
Tihomir Hristov
,
Djamal Khelif
,
Andrew Jessup
,
Haf Jonsson
,
Ming Li
,
Larry Mahrt
,
Wade McGillis
,
Albert Plueddemann
,
Lian Shen
,
Eric Skyllingstad
,
Tim Stanton
,
Peter Sullivan
,
Jielun Sun
,
John Trowbridge
,
Dean Vickers
,
Shouping Wang
,
Qing Wang
,
Robert Weller
,
John Wilkin
,
Albert J. Williams III
,
D. K. P. Yue
, and
Chris Zappa

The Office of Naval Research's Coupled Boundary Layers and Air–Sea Transfer (CBLAST) program is being conducted to investigate the processes that couple the marine boundary layers and govern the exchange of heat, mass, and momentum across the air–sea interface. CBLAST-LOW was designed to investigate these processes at the low-wind extreme where the processes are often driven or strongly modulated by buoyant forcing. The focus was on conditions ranging from negligible wind stress, where buoyant forcing dominates, up to wind speeds where wave breaking and Langmuir circulations play a significant role in the exchange processes. The field program provided observations from a suite of platforms deployed in the coastal ocean south of Martha's Vineyard. Highlights from the measurement campaigns include direct measurement of the momentum and heat fluxes on both sides of the air–sea interface using a specially constructed Air–Sea Interaction Tower (ASIT), and quantification of regional oceanic variability over scales of O(1–104 mm) using a mesoscale mooring array, aircraft-borne remote sensors, drifters, and ship surveys. To our knowledge, the former represents the first successful attempt to directly and simultaneously measure the heat and momentum exchange on both sides of the air–sea interface. The latter provided a 3D picture of the oceanic boundary layer during the month-long main experiment. These observations have been combined with numerical models and direct numerical and large-eddy simulations to investigate the processes that couple the atmosphere and ocean under these conditions. For example, the oceanic measurements have been used in the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) to investigate the 3D evolution of regional ocean thermal stratification. The ultimate goal of these investigations is to incorporate improved parameterizations of these processes in coupled models such as the Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS) to improve marine forecasts of wind, waves, and currents.

Full access
Edward G. Patton
,
Thomas W. Horst
,
Peter P. Sullivan
,
Donald H. Lenschow
,
Steven P. Oncley
,
William O. J. Brown
,
Sean P. Burns
,
Alex B. Guenther
,
Andreas Held
,
Thomas Karl
,
Shane D. Mayor
,
Luciana V. Rizzo
,
Scott M. Spuler
,
Jielun Sun
,
Andrew A. Turnipseed
,
Eugene J. Allwine
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Steven L. Edburg
,
Brian K. Lamb
,
Roni Avissar
,
Ronald J. Calhoun
,
Jan Kleissl
,
William J. Massman
,
Kyaw Tha Paw U
, and
Jeffrey C. Weil

The Canopy Horizontal Array Turbulence Study (CHATS) took place in spring 2007 and is the third in the series of Horizontal Array Turbulence Study (HATS) experiments. The HATS experiments have been instrumental in testing and developing subfilterscale (SFS) models for large-eddy simulation (LES) of planetary boundary layer (PBL) turbulence. The CHATS campaign took place in a deciduous walnut orchard near Dixon, California, and was designed to examine the impacts of vegetation on SFS turbulence. Measurements were collected both prior to and following leafout to capture the impact of leaves on the turbulence, stratification, and scalar source/sink distribution. CHATS utilized crosswind arrays of fast-response instrumentation to investigate the impact of the canopy-imposed distribution of momentum extraction and scalar sources on SFS transport of momentum, energy, and three scalars. To directly test and link with PBL parameterizations of canopy-modified turbulent exchange, CHATS also included a 30-m profile tower instrumented with turbulence instrumentation, fast and slow chemical sensors, aerosol samplers, and radiation instrumentation. A highresolution scanning backscatter lidar characterized the turbulence structure above and within the canopy; a scanning Doppler lidar, mini sodar/radio acoustic sounding system (RASS), and a new helicopter-observing platform provided details of the PBL-scale flow. Ultimately, the CHATS dataset will lead to improved parameterizations of energy and scalar transport to and from vegetation, which are a critical component of global and regional land, atmosphere, and chemical models. This manuscript presents an overview of the experiment, documents the regime sampled, and highlights some preliminary key findings.

Full access
Jielun Sun
,
Steven P. Oncley
,
Sean P. Burns
,
Britton B. Stephens
,
Donald H. Lenschow
,
Teresa Campos
,
Russell K. Monson
,
David S. Schimel
,
William J. Sacks
,
Stephan F. J. De Wekker
,
Chun-Ta Lai
,
Brian Lamb
,
Dennis Ojima
,
Patrick Z. Ellsworth
,
Leonel S. L. Sternberg
,
Sharon Zhong
,
Craig Clements
,
David J. P. Moore
,
Dean E. Anderson
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Andrew S. Watt
,
Jia Hu
,
Mark Tschudi
,
Steven Aulenbach
,
Eugene Allwine
, and
Teresa Coons

A significant fraction of Earth consists of mountainous terrain. However, the question of how to monitor the surface–atmosphere carbon exchange over complex terrain has not been fully explored. This article reports on studies by a team of investigators from U.S. universities and research institutes who carried out a multiscale and multidisciplinary field and modeling investigation of the CO2 exchange between ecosystems and the atmosphere and of CO2 transport over complex mountainous terrain in the Rocky Mountain region of Colorado. The goals of the field campaign, which included ground and airborne in situ and remote-sensing measurements, were to characterize unique features of the local CO2 exchange and to find effective methods to measure regional ecosystem–atmosphere CO2 exchange over complex terrain. The modeling effort included atmospheric and ecological numerical modeling and data assimilation to investigate regional CO2 transport and biological processes involved in ecosystem–atmosphere carbon exchange. In this report, we document our approaches, demonstrate some preliminary results, and discuss principal patterns and conclusions concerning ecosystem–atmosphere carbon exchange over complex terrain and its relation to past studies that have considered these processes over much simpler terrain.

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