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Roy W. Spencer and John R. Christy

Abstract

TIROS-N satellite Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) channel 2 data from different view angles across the MSU man swath are combined to remove the influence of the lower stratosphere and much of the upper troposphere on the measured brightness temperatures. The retrieval provides a sharper averaging kernel than the raw channel 2 weighting function, with a peak lowered from 50 kPa to 70 kPa and with only slightly more surface influence than raw channel 2. Monthly 2.5° gridpoint anomalies of this tropospheric retrieval compared between simultaneously operating satellites indicate close agreement, 0.15°C in the tropics to around 0.30°C over much of the higher latitudes. The agreement is not as close as with raw channel 2 anomalies because synoptic-scale temperature gradient information across the 2000-km swath of the MSU is lost in the retrieval procedure and because the retrieval involves the magnification of a small difference between two large numbers. Single gridpoint monthly anomaly correlations between the satellite measurements and the radiosonde calculations range from around 0.95 at high latitudes to below 0.8 in the tropical west Pacific, with standard errors of estimate of 0.16°C at Guam to around 0.50°C at high-latitude continental stations. Calculation of radiosonde temperature with a static weighting function instead of the radiative transfer equation degrades the standard errors by an average of less than 0.04°C. Of various standard tropospheric layers, the channel 2 retrieval anomalies correlate best with radiosonde 100–50- or 100–40-kPa-thickness anomalies. A comparison between global and hemispheric anomalies computed for raw channel 2 data versus the tropospheric retrieval show a correction in the 1979–90 time series for the volcano-induced stratospheric warming of 1982–83, which was independently observed by MSU channel 4. This correction leads to a slightly greater tropospheric warming trend in the 12-year time series (1979–90) for the tropospheric retrieval [0.039°C (±0.03°C) per decade] than for channel 2 alone [0.022°C (±0.02°C) per decade].

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John R. Christy and S. James Drouilhet Jr.

Abstract

Satellite data from the microwave sounding unit (MSU) channel 4, when carefully merged, provide daily zonal anomalies of lower-stratosphere temperature with a level of precision between 0.01° and 0.08°C per 2.5° latitude band. Global averages of these daily zonal anomalies reveal the prominent warming events due to volcanic aerosol in 1982 (El Chichón) and 1991 (Mt. Pinatubo), which are on the order of 1°C.

The quasibiennial oscillation (QBO) may be extracted from these zonal data by applying a spatial filter between 15°N and 15°S latitude, which resembles the meridional curvature. Previously published relationships between the QBO and the north polar stratospheric temperatures during northern winter are examined but were not found to be reproduced in the MSU4 data.

Sudden stratospheric warmings in the north polar region are represented in the MSU4 data for latitudes poleward of 70°N. In the Southern Hemisphere, there appears to be a moderate relationship between total ozone concentration and MSU4 temperatures, though it has been less apparent in 1991 and 1992.

In terms of empirical modes of variability, the authors find a strong tendency in EOF 1(39.2% of the variance) for anomalies in the Northern Hemisphere polar regions to be counterbalanced by anomalies equatorward of 40°N and 40°S latitudes. In addition, most of the modes revealed significant power in the 15–20 day period band.

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Roy W. Spencer and John R. Christy

Abstract

Microwave Sounding Unit channel 4 data from the TIROS-N series of NOAA satellites are intercalibrated to provide a continuous global record of deep-layer averaged lower stratospheric temperatures during 1979–1991. A 13-year record of temperature anomalies is time averaged into pentads and months on a 2.5° grid. The monthly gridpoint anomalies are validated with ten years of radiosonde data during 1979–88. The calibration stability of each satellite's measurements is evaluated during satellite overlap periods, the longest of which reveal no measurable instrumental drift at the level of 0.01°C yr−1. Intercomparisons between NOAA-6 and NOAA-7 anomalies indicate monthly gridpoint precision of 0.05°C in the tropics to around 0.10°C in the extratropies, and signal-to-noise ratios generally over 500, while global monthly precision is 0.01° to 0.02°C. These precision and stability statistics are much better than have been previously reported by other investigators for MSU channel 4. Pentad precision is about 0.10°C in the tropics to around 0.25°C at high latitudes and signal-to- noise ratios generally over 250 in the tropics and high latitude but 100–200 in the middle latitudes. Radiosonde comparisons to the monthly gridpoint anomalies have correlations ranging from 0.90 in the tropics (when the interannual variability is smallest) to as high as 0.99 at high-latitude stations. The corresponding standard error of estimate is generally around 0.3°C.

A significant difference in decadal trends is found between the satellite and radiosonde systems, with a step change of 0.217°C (sondes cooler) compared to the satellite measurements. Investigations of the possible sources of the discrepancy lead us to suspect that the gradual transition from on-site calibration of sondes with thermometers to factory calibration of sondes around 1982 might have caused a change in the calibration, although this conclusion must be viewed as tentative.

The largest globally averaged temperature variations during 1979–91 occur after the El Chichón (1982) and Pinatubo (1991) volcanic eruptions. These warm events are superimposed upon a net downward trend in temperatures during the period. This cooling trend has more of a step function than linear character, with the step occurring during the El Chichón warm event. It is strongest in polar regions and the Northern Hemisphere middle latitudes. These characteristics are qualitatively consistent with radiative adjustments expected to occur with observed ozone depictions.

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Roy W. Spencer and John R. Christy

Abstract

In Part I of this study, monthly 2.5° gridpoint anomalies in the TIROS-N satellite series Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) channel 2 brightness temperatures during 1979–88 are evaluated with multiple satellites and radiosonde data for their climate temperature monitoring capability. The MSU anomalies are computed about a 10-year mean annual cycle at each grid point, with the MSUs intercalibrated to a common arbitrary level. The intercalibrations remove relative biases between instruments of up to several tenths of a degree celsius. The monthly gridpoint anomaly agreement between concurrently operating satellites reveals single-satellite precision generally better than 0.07°C in the tropics and better than 0.15°C at higher latitudes. Monthly anomalies in radiosonde channel 2 brightness temperatures computed with the radiative transfer equation compare very closely to the MSU measured anomalies in all climate zones, with correlations generally from 0.94 to 0.98 and standard errors of 0.15°C in the tropics to 0.30°C at high latitudes. Simplification of these radiative transfer calculations to a static weighting profile applied to the radiosonde temperature profile leads to an average degradation of only 0.02° in the monthly skill. In terms of a more traditionally measured quantity, the MSU channel 2 anomalies match best with either the radiosonde 100–20-kPa or 100–15-kPa layer anomalies. No significant spurious trends were found in the 10-yr satellite dataset compared to the radiosondes that would indicate a calibration drift in either system. Thus, sequentially launched, overlapping passive microwave radiometers provide a useful system for monitoring intraseasonal to interannual climate anomalies and offer hope for monitoring of interdecadal trends from space. The Appendix includes previously unpublished details of the MSU gridpoint anomaly dataset construction. Part II of this study addresses the removal from channel 2 of the temperature influence above the 30-kPa level, providing a sharper and thus potentially more useful weighting function for monitoring lower tropospheric temperatures.

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John R. Christy, Kevin E. Trenberth, and John R. Anderson

Abstract

Seven years of daily global surface pressure (Ps,) analyses derived from European Centre for Medium Range Forecasts (ECMWF) data are examined to describe more fully interhemispheric mass exchanges and intraseasonal variability. Extreme events in hemispheric mean Ps are determined, and composited grid point differences show that hemispheric anomalies are mainly determined by pressures in the North Pacific, western North Atlantic, northern Asia and the Southern Hemisphere (SH) circumpolar trough. Seasonal differences in the composites indicate that the regional anomalies occur farther poleward in the winter hemisphere, and the tropical anomalies tend to have the same sign as that of the summer hemispheric mean anomaly.

Long-lasting, localized, extreme Ps anomalies are identified in 18 significant events of hemispheric mass imbalance, and are found to be highly favored when the hemispheric mean departs significantly from normal. The result implies that regionally persistent anomalies are related to global-scale mass redistributions, rather than being totally the result of more localized redistributions.

The global atmospheric angular momentum exhibits significant changes during interhemispheric mass imbalances that exceed one standard deviation (about 0.4 mb). There is a strong tendency for the hemisphere in which a deficit of mass occurs to experience, on average, a 5% increase in hemispheric angular momentum.

Zonal complex empirical orthogonal functions are used to describe the Ps cos ϕ anomalies, filtered for 30–75 day fluctuations. Dominant modes are found in which each hemisphere, independently, produced intrahemispheric exchanges between polar and temperate latitudes. An interhemispheric mode indicates exchanges of mass between the midlatitudes of the Northern Hemisphere and the entire tropics plus the SH subtropics. The interhemispheric mode displays a southward propagation of anomalies from the tropical belt into the SH.

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Roy W. Spencer, John R. Christy, and Norman C. Grody

Abstract

A method for measuring global atmospheric temperature anomalies to a high level of precision from satellites is demonstrated. Global data from the Microwave Sounding Units (MSUs), flying on NOAA satellites since late 1978, have been analysed to determine the extent to which these data can reveal atmospheric temperature anomalies on bidaily and longer time scales for regional and larger space scales. The global sampling provided by the MSUs is an important asset, with most of the earth sampled bidaily from each of (typically) two instruments flying concurrently on separate satellites at different solar times. The primary source of tropospheric thermal information is from the MSU 53.74 GHz channel. This channel is primarily sensitive to thermal emission from molecular oxygen in the middle troposphere, with relatively little sensitivity to water vapor, the earth's surface, and cloud (especially cirrus) variations. The long-term stability of the oxygen mixing ratio in the atmosphere makes it an ideal tracer for climate monitoring purposes. Lower stratospheric temperature anomalies are derived from the MSU 57.95 GHz channel.

Comparisons between monthly MSU temperature anomalies and corresponding thermometer-measured anomalies for the United States reveal a high (0.9) correlation, but hemispheric anomalies show much lower correlations. This results from some combination of poor thermometer sampling of remote regions and weak coupling of surface and deep-tropospheric temperature anomalies in tropical areas.

Analysis of data from two of the MSUs (on NOAA-6 and NOAA-7), whose operational periods overlapped by two years, reveals that hemispheric temperature anomalies measured by the separate instruments are very similar (to about 0.01°C) on monthly time scales. Their combined time series of unfiltered two-day hemispheric averages show standard deviations of their mean of 0.15°–0.20°C and standard deviations of their average difference of 0.02°–0.03°C, indicating a signal-to-noise ratio of 40 for the Southern Hemisphere and 45 for the Northern Hemisphere. The intercomparison period also reveals no evidence of calibration drift between satellites at the 0.01°C level. This was substantiated by two 15-month comparisons of NOAA-6 with rawinsonde data from 45 stations in the eastern United States, which revealed 0.013°C net difference over five years. Monthly averaged comparisons between individual rawinsonde and NOAA-6 data from 1980 through 1982 reveal a monthly standard deviation of their difference of 0.04°C. The statistical and geophysical portions of this noise are found to be about equal in magnitude, 0.03°C. The single-satellite noise due to imperfect sampling for ten-day, 2.5° gridpoint temperatures was calculated by measuring the standard deviation of the difference between two satellites with ranges from 0.2°C in the tropics to 0.4°C in middle latitudes.

The period of analysis (1979–84) reveals that Northern and Southern hemispheric tropospheric temperature anomalies (from the six-year mean) am positively correlated on multiseasonal time scales but negatively correlated on shorter time scales. The 1983 ENSO dominates the record, with early 1983 zonally averaged tropical temperatures up to 0.6°C warmer than the average of the remaining years. These natural variations are much larger than that expected of greenhouse enhancements, and so it is likely that a considerably longer period of satellite record must accumulate for any longer-term trends to be revealed.

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John R. Christy, Roy W. Spencer, and Elena S. Lobl

Abstract

The merging procedure utilized to generate homogeneous time series of three deep-layer atmospheric temperature products from the nine microwave sounding units (MSUs) is described. A critically important aspect in the process is determining and removing the bias each instrument possesses relative to a common base (here being NOAA-6). Special attention is given to the lower-tropospheric layer and the calculation of the bias of the NOAA-9 MSU and its rather considerable impact on the trend of the overall time series. We show that the bias is best calculated by a direct comparison between NOAA-6 and NOAA-9, though there other possible methods available, and is determined to be +0.50°C. Spurious variations of individual MSUs due to orbital drift and/or cyclic variations tied to the annual cycle are also identified and eliminated. In general, intersatellite biases for the three instruments that form the backbone of the time series (MSUs on NOAA-6, -10 and -12) are known to within 0.01°C.

After slight modifications in the treatment of the bias, drift-error, and cyclic fluctuations, the authors produced a time series in which the decadal trend is +0.03°C warmer than previously reported for the lower troposphere. Because they are of much higher precision, the midtropospheric and lower-stratospheric products are only slightly affected by alterations to procedures applied in this study.

Recent suggestions that spurious jumps were present in the lower-tropospheric time series of earlier versions of the MSU data based on SST comparisons are addressed. Using independent comparisons of different satellites, radiosondes, and night marine air temperatures, no indication is found of the presence of these “spurious” jumps.

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Kevin E. Trenberth, John R. Christy, and James W. Hurrell

Abstract

An assessment is made of how well the monthly mean surface temperatures for the decade of the 1980s are known. The sources of noise in the data, the numbers of observations, and the spatial coverage are appraised for comparison with the climate signal, and different analyzed results are compared to see how reproducible they are. The data are further evaluated by comparing anomalies of near-global monthly mean surface temperatures with those of global satellite channel 2 microwave sounding unit (MSU) temperatures for 144 months from 1979 to 1990. Very distinctive patterns are seen in the correlation coefficients, which range from high (>0.8) over the extratropical continents of the Northern Hemisphere, to moderate (∼0,5) over tropical and subtropical land areas, to very low over the southern oceans and tropical western Pacific. The physical difference between the two temperature measurements is one factor in these patterns. The correlation coefficient is a measure of the signal-to-noise ratio, and largest values are found where the climate signal is largest, but the spatial variation in the inherent noise in the surface observations over the oceans is the other major factor in accounting for the pattern.

Over the oceans, sea surface temperatures (SSTS) are used in the surface dataset in place of surface air temperature and the Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (COADS) has been used to show that 80% of the monthly mean air temperature variance is accounted for in regions of good data coverage. A detailed analysis of the sources of errors in in situ SSTs and an overall estimate of the noise are obtained from the COADS by assessing the variability within 2° longitude by 2° latitude boxes within each month for 1979. In regions of small spatial gradient of mean SST, individual SST measurements are representative of the monthly mean in a 2° box to within a standard error of 1.0°C in the tropics and 1.2° to 1.4°C in the extratropics. The standard error is larger in the North Pacific than in the North Atlantic and much larger in regions of strong SST gradient, such as within the vicinity of the Gulf Stream, because both within-month temporal variability and within-2° box spatial variability are enhanced. The total standard error of the monthly mean in each box is reduced approximately by the square root of the number of observations available. The overall noise in SSTs ranges from less than 0.1°C over the North Atlantic to over 0.5deg;C over the oceans south of about 35°S. Greater daily variability in surface marine air temperatures than in SSTs means that two to three times as many observations are needed per month to reduce the noise in the monthly mean air temperature to the same level as for SST. Tests of the reproducibility of SSTs in analyses from the U.K. Meteorological Office (UKMO) and the U.S. Climate Analysis Center (CAC) and from COADS reveal monthly anomaly correlations on a 5° grid exceeding 0.9 over the northern oceans but less than 0.6 in the central tropical Pacific and south of about 35°S. Root-mean-square differences between CAC and UKMO monthly SST anomalies exceed 0.6°C in the regions where the correlation is lower than about 0.6.

With the marked exception of the eastern tropical Pacific, where the large El Niño signal is easily detected, there are insufficient numbers of SST observations to reliably define SST or surface air temperature monthly mean anomalies over most of the oceans south of about 10°N. The use of seasons rather than months can improve the signal-to-noise ratio if careful treatment of the annual cycle is included. For seasonal means, SST anomalies cannot be reliably defined south of 20°S in the eastern Pacific and south of ∼35°S elsewhere except near New Zealand. In light of the noise estimates and the much fewer numbers of observations in the past, difficulties in establishing temperatures from the historical record are discussed.

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John R. Christy, William B. Norris, and Richard T. McNider

Abstract

Surface temperatures have been observed in East Africa for more than 100 yr, but heretofore have not been subject to a rigorous climate analysis. To pursue this goal monthly averages of maximum (T Max), minimum (T Min), and mean (T Mean) temperatures were obtained for Kenya and Tanzania from several sources. After the data were organized into time series for specific sites (60 in Kenya and 58 in Tanzania), the series were adjusted for break points and merged into individual gridcell squares of 1.25°, 2.5°, and 5.0°.

Results for the most data-rich 5° cell, which includes Nairobi, Mount Kilimanjaro, and Mount Kenya, indicate that since 1905, and even recently, the trend of T Max is not significantly different from zero. However, T Min results suggest an accelerating temperature rise.

Uncertainty estimates indicate that the trend of the difference time series (T MaxT Min) is significantly less than zero for 1946–2004, the period with the highest density of observations. This trend difference continues in the most recent period (1979–2004), in contrast with findings in recent periods for global datasets, which generally have sparse coverage of East Africa.

The differences between T Max and T Min trends, especially recently, may reflect a response to complex changes in the boundary layer dynamics; T Max represents the significantly greater daytime vertical connection to the deep atmosphere, whereas T Min often represents only a shallow layer whose temperature is more dependent on the turbulent state than on the temperature aloft.

Because the turbulent state in the stable boundary layer is highly dependent on local land use and perhaps locally produced aerosols, the significant human development of the surface may be responsible for the rising T Min while having little impact on T Max in East Africa. This indicates that time series of T Max and T Min should become separate variables in the study of long-term changes.

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John R. Christy, William B. Norris, and Kevin P. Gallo
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