Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 6 of 6 items for :

  • Author or Editor: Juliana Dias x
  • Monthly Weather Review x
  • Refine by Access: Content accessible to me x
Clear All Modify Search
Juliana Dias
,
Stefan N. Tulich
,
Maria Gehne
, and
George N. Kiladis

Abstract

A set of 30-day reforecast experiments, focused on the Northern Hemisphere (NH) cool season (November–March), is performed to quantify the remote impacts of tropical forecast errors on the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Global Forecast System (GFS). The approach is to nudge the model toward reanalyses in the tropics and then measure the change in skill at higher latitudes as a function of lead time. In agreement with previous analogous studies, results show that midlatitude predictions tend to be improved in association with reducing tropical forecast errors during weeks 2–4, particularly over the North Pacific and western North America, where gains in subseasonal precipitation anomaly pattern correlations are substantial. It is also found that tropical nudging is more effective at improving NH subseasonal predictions in cases where skill is relatively low in the control reforecast, whereas it tends to improve fewer cases that are already relatively skillful. By testing various tropical nudging configurations, it is shown that tropical circulation errors play a primary role in the remote modulation of predictive skill. A time-dependent analysis suggests a roughly 1-week lag between a decrease in tropical errors and an increase in NH predictive skill. A combined tropical nudging and conditional skill analysis indicates that improved Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) predictions throughout its life cycle could improve weeks 3–4 NH precipitation predictions.

Full access
Juliana Dias
,
Maria Gehne
,
George N. Kiladis
,
Naoko Sakaeda
,
Peter Bechtold
, and
Thomas Haiden

Abstract

Despite decades of research on the role of moist convective processes in large-scale tropical dynamics, tropical forecast skill in operational models is still deficient when compared to the extratropics, even at short lead times. Here we compare tropical and Northern Hemisphere (NH) forecast skill for quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPFs) in the NCEP Global Forecast System (GFS) and ECMWF Integrated Forecast System (IFS) during January 2015–March 2016. Results reveal that, in general, initial conditions are reasonably well estimated in both forecast systems, as indicated by relatively good skill scores for the 6–24-h forecasts. However, overall, tropical QPF forecasts in both systems are not considered useful by typical metrics much beyond 4 days. To quantify the relationship between QPF and dynamical skill, space–time spectra and coherence of rainfall and divergence fields are calculated. It is shown that while tropical variability is too weak in both models, the IFS is more skillful in propagating tropical waves for longer lead times. In agreement with past studies demonstrating that extratropical skill is partially drawn from the tropics, a comparison of daily skill in the tropics versus NH suggests that in both models NH forecast skill at lead times beyond day 3 is enhanced by tropical skill in the first couple of days. As shown in previous work, this study indicates that the differences in physics used in each system, in particular, how moist convective processes are coupled to the large-scale flow through these parameterizations, appear as a major source of tropical forecast errors.

Full access
Lisa Bengtsson
,
Luc Gerard
,
Jongil Han
,
Maria Gehne
,
Wei Li
, and
Juliana Dias

Abstract

A prognostic closure is introduced to, and evaluated in, NOAA’s Unified Forecast System. The closure addresses aspects that are not commonly represented in traditional cumulus convection parameterizations, and it departs from the previous assumptions of a negligible subgrid area coverage and statistical quasi-equilibrium at steady state, the latter of which becomes invalid at higher resolution. The new parameterization introduces a prognostic evolution of the convective updraft area fraction based on a moisture budget, and, together with the buoyancy-driven updraft vertical velocity, it completes the cloud-base mass flux. In addition, the new closure addresses stochasticity and includes a representation of subgrid convective organization using cellular automata as well as scale-adaptive considerations. The new cumulus convection closure shows potential for improved Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) prediction. In our simulations we observe better propagation, amplitude, and phase of the MJO in a case study relative to the control simulation. This improvement can be partly attributed to a closer coupling between low-level moisture flux convergence and precipitation as revealed by a space–time coherence spectrum. In addition, we find that enhanced organization feedback representation and stochastic effects, represented using cellular automata, further enhance the amplitude and propagation of the MJO, and they provide realistic uncertainty estimates of convectively coupled equatorial waves at seasonal time scales. The scale-adaptive behavior of the scheme is also studied by running the global model with 25-, 13-, 9-, and 3-km grid spacing. It is found that the convective area fraction and the convective updraft velocity are both scale adaptive, leading to a reduction of subgrid convective precipitation in the higher-resolution simulations.

Free access
Lisa Bengtsson
,
Juliana Dias
,
Maria Gehne
,
Peter Bechtold
,
Jeffrey Whitaker
,
Jian-Wen Bao
,
Linus Magnusson
,
Sara Michelson
,
Philip Pegion
,
Stefan Tulich
, and
George N. Kiladis

Abstract

There is a longstanding challenge in numerical weather and climate prediction to accurately model tropical wave variability, including convectively coupled equatorial waves (CCEWs) and the Madden–Julian oscillation. For subseasonal prediction, the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Integrated Forecasting System (IFS) has been shown to be superior to the NOAA Global Forecast System (GFS) in simulating tropical variability, suggesting that the ECMWF model is better at simulating the interaction between cumulus convection and the large-scale tropical circulation. In this study, we experiment with the cumulus convection scheme of the ECMWF IFS in a research version of the GFS to understand which aspects of the IFS cumulus convection scheme outperform those of the GFS convection scheme in the tropics. We show that the IFS cumulus convection scheme produces significantly different tropical moisture and temperature tendency profiles from those simulated by the GFS convection scheme when it is coupled with other physics schemes in the GFS physics package. We show that a consistent treatment of the interaction between parameterized convective plumes in the GFS planetary boundary layer (PBL) and the IFS convection scheme is required for the GFS to replicate the tropical temperature and moisture profiles simulated by the IFS model. The GFS model with the IFS convection scheme, and the consistent treatment between the convection and PBL schemes, produces much more organized convection in the tropics, and generates tropical waves that propagate more coherently than the GFS in its default configuration due to better simulated interaction between low-level convergence and precipitation.

Free access
George N. Kiladis
,
Juliana Dias
,
Katherine H. Straub
,
Matthew C. Wheeler
,
Stefan N. Tulich
,
Kazuyoshi Kikuchi
,
Klaus M. Weickmann
, and
Michael J. Ventrice
Free access
George N. Kiladis
,
Juliana Dias
,
Katherine H. Straub
,
Matthew C. Wheeler
,
Stefan N. Tulich
,
Kazuyoshi Kikuchi
,
Klaus M. Weickmann
, and
Michael J. Ventrice

Abstract

Two univariate indices of the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) based on outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) are developed to track the convective component of the MJO while taking into account the seasonal cycle. These are compared with the all-season Real-time Multivariate MJO (RMM) index of Wheeler and Hendon derived from a multivariate EOF of circulation and OLR. The gross features of the OLR and circulation of composite MJOs are similar regardless of the index, although RMM is characterized by stronger circulation. Diversity in the amplitude and phase of individual MJO events between the indices is much more evident; this is demonstrated using examples from the Dynamics of the Madden–Julian Oscillation (DYNAMO) field campaign and the Year of Tropical Convection (YOTC) virtual campaign. The use of different indices can lead to quite disparate conclusions concerning MJO timing and strength, and even as to whether or not an MJO has occurred. A disadvantage of using daily OLR as an EOF basis is that it is a much noisier field than the large-scale circulation, and filtering is necessary to obtain stable results through the annual cycle. While a drawback of filtering is that it cannot be done in real time, a reasonable approximation to the original fully filtered index can be obtained by following an endpoint smoothing method. When the convective signal is of primary interest, the authors advocate the use of satellite-based metrics for retrospective analysis of the MJO for individual cases, as well as for the analysis of model skill in initiating and evolving the MJO.

Full access