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M. Breil
,
D. Rechid
,
E. L. Davin
,
N. de Noblet-Ducoudré
,
E. Katragkou
,
R. M. Cardoso
,
P. Hoffmann
,
L. L. Jach
,
P. M. M. Soares
,
G. Sofiadis
,
S. Strada
,
G. Strandberg
,
M. H. Tölle
, and
K. Warrach-Sagi

Abstract

The biophysical effects of reforestation and afforestation (herein jointly called re/afforestation) on the diurnal temperature cycle in European summer are investigated by analyzing a regional climate model (RCM) ensemble, established within the Land Use and Climate Across Scales Flagship Pilot Study (LUCAS FPS). With this RCM ensemble, two idealized experiments are performed for Europe, one with a continent with maximized forest cover, and one in which all forests are turned into grassland. First, an in-depth analysis of one ensemble member (“CCLM-VEG3D”) is carried out, to reveal the complex process chain caused by such land use changes (LUCs). From these findings, the whole ensemble is analyzed and principal biophysical effects of re/afforestation are derived. Results show that the diurnal temperature range is reduced at the surface (top of the vegetation) with re/afforestation. Most RCMs simulate colder surface temperatures T surf during the day and warmer T surf during the night. Thus, for the first time, the principal temperature interrelations found in observation-based studies in the midlatitudes could be reproduced within a model intercomparison study. On the contrary, the diurnal temperature range in the lowest atmospheric model level (T air) is increased with re/afforestation. This opposing temperature response is mainly caused by the higher surface roughness of forest, enhancing the turbulent heat exchange. Furthermore, these opposing temperature responses demonstrate that the use of the diagnostic 2-m temperature (weighted interpolation between T surf and T air) has a limited potential to assess the effects of re/afforestation. Thus, studies about the biophysical impacts of LUCs should investigate the whole near-surface temperature profile.

Open access
E. Raschke
,
J. Meywerk
,
K. Warrach
,
U. Andrea
,
S. Bergström
,
F. Beyrich
,
F. Bosveld
,
K. Bumke
,
C. Fortelius
,
L. P. Graham
,
S.-E. Gryning
,
S. Halldin
,
L. Hasse
,
M. Heikinheimo
,
H.-J. Isemer
,
D. Jacob
,
I. Jauja
,
K.-G. Karlsson
,
S. Keevallik
,
J. Koistinen
,
A. van Lammeren
,
U. Lass
,
J. Launianen
,
A. Lehmann
,
B. Liljebladh
,
M. Lobmeyr
,
W. Matthäus
,
T. Mengelkamp
,
D. B. Michelson
,
J. Napiórkowski
,
A. Omstedt
,
J. Piechura
,
B. Rockel
,
F. Rubel
,
E. Ruprecht
,
A.-S. Smedman
, and
A. Stigebrandt

The Baltic Sea Experiment (BALTEX) is one of the five continental-scale experiments of the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX). More than 50 research groups from 14 European countries are participating in this project to measure and model the energy and water cycle over the large drainage basin of the Baltic Sea in northern Europe. BALTEX aims to provide a better understanding of the processes of the climate system and to improve and to validate the water cycle in regional numerical models for weather forecasting and climate studies. A major effort is undertaken to couple interactively the atmosphere with the vegetated continental surfaces and the Baltic Sea including its sea ice. The intensive observational and modeling phase BRIDGE, which is a contribution to the Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period of GEWEX, will provide enhanced datasets for the period October 1999–February 2002 to validate numerical models and satellite products. Major achievements have been obtained in an improved understanding of related exchange processes. For the first time an interactive atmosphere–ocean–land surface model for the Baltic Sea was tested. This paper reports on major activities and some results.

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