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Holger Siebert, Katrin Lehmann, and Raymond A. Shaw

Abstract

The use of a hot-wire anemometer for high-resolution turbulence measurements in a two-phase flow (e.g., atmospheric clouds) is discussed. Experiments in a small wind tunnel (diameter of 0.2 and 2 m in length) with a mean flow velocity in the range between 5 and 16 m s−1 are performed. In the wind tunnel a spray with a liquid water content of 0.5 and 2.5 g m−3 is generated. After applying a simple despiking algorithm, power spectral analysis shows the same results as spectra observed without spray under similar flow conditions. The flattening of the spectrum at higher frequencies due to impacting droplets could be reduced significantly. The time of the signal response of the hot wire to impacting droplets is theoretically estimated and compared with observations. Estimating the fraction of time during which the velocity signal is influenced by droplet spikes, it turns out that the product of liquid water content and mean flow velocity should be minimized. This implies that for turbulence measurements in atmospheric clouds, a slowly flying platform such as a balloon or helicopter is the appropriate instrumental carrier. Examples of hot-wire anemometer measurements with the helicopter-borne Airborne Cloud Turbulence Observation System (ACTOS) are presented.

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Sebastian Schmidt, Katrin Lehmann, and Manfred Wendisch

Abstract

A modified version of the Fast-FSSP (the so-called M-Fast-FSSP) is introduced. It allows minimization of the instrumental broadening of measured cloud drop size distributions caused by laser beam inhomogeneities. This is achieved by applying a new technique based on a postexperiment stepwise reduction of the probe's sampling volume. For monodisperse glass bead samples it is shown that the width of the measured size distribution is considerably reduced when applying this technique, especially for large glass bead diameters. The instrumental broadening may exceed a factor of about 4 for a mean glass bead diameter of 30 μm. The M-Fast-FSSP was applied in two cloud measurement campaigns. For two specific cloud cases, the profile of the width of the measured drop size distribution changes significantly when applying the method.

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