Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 6 of 6 items for :

  • Author or Editor: Kazuhisa Tsuboki x
  • Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences x
  • Refine by Access: Content accessible to me x
Clear All Modify Search
Satoki Tsujino
and
Kazuhisa Tsuboki

Abstract

Intensity change of tropical cyclones (TCs) as they make landfall is closely linked to sustained periods of high surface winds and heavy precipitation. Few studies have investigated the intensity change of intense TCs that make landfall in middle latitudes such as Japan because few intense typhoons make landfall in middle latitudes. In this study, a numerical simulation of intense Typhoon Nancy (1961) was used to understand the intensity change that occurred when Nancy made landfall in Japan. A spectral nudging technique was introduced to reduce track errors in the simulation. During landfall, the simulated storm exhibited the salient asymmetric structure and rapid eyewall contraction. A tangential wind budget indicated that the maximum wind speed decreased concurrent with an increase in surface friction and advection associated with low-level asymmetric flows. Detailed evolution of the storm’s warm core was analyzed with a potential temperature budget. In the upper part of the warm core centered at a 12-km height, cooling due to ventilation by asymmetric flows and longwave radiation overcame heating due to condensation and shortwave radiation during the contraction of eyewall clouds. In the lower part of the warm core, adiabatic cooling more than offset warm-air intrusions associated with asymmetric flows and condensational heating. The condensation was supplied by an abundance of moisture due to evaporation from the ocean in the well-developed typhoon based on a moisture budget. Sensitivity experiments revealed that environmental baroclinicity in the midlatitudes, orography, and radiative processes made minor contributions to the weakening. The weakening was instead controlled by inner-core dynamics and interactions with land surfaces.

Open access
Satoki Tsujino
,
Kazuhisa Tsuboki
, and
Hung-Chi Kuo

Abstract

Typhoons with long-lived concentric eyewalls (CEs) are more intense than those with short-lived CEs. It is important for more accurate prediction of typhoon intensity to understand the maintenance mechanism of the long-lived CEs. To study the mechanism of the long-term maintenance of CEs, a numerical experiment of Typhoon Bolaven (2012) is performed using a nonhydrostatic model with full physics. Two aspects of the maintenance of simulated CEs are investigated: the maintenance of the inner eyewall and the contraction of the outer eyewall. To examine the maintenance of the inner eyewall, the equivalent potential temperature budget and air parcel trajectories of the simulated inner eyewall are calculated. The results show that the entropy supply to the inner eyewall is sufficient to maintain the inner eyewall after secondary eyewall formation (SEF). During the early period after SEF, entropy is supplied by an axisymmetric inflow, and later it is supplied by nonaxisymmetric flows of the outer eyewall. To examine the contraction of the outer eyewall, the potential vorticity (PV) budget of the outer eyewall is diagnosed. The result reveals that the negative contribution to the contraction of the outer PV peak (i.e., the outer eyewall) in the early period is the negative PV generation due to axisymmetric advection and diabatic heating just inside of the outer PV peak. In the later period, the negative PV generation due to nonaxisymmetric structure is important for the prevention of contraction. The present study reveals that the structure of the outer eyewall plays important roles in the maintenance of long-lived CEs.

Open access
Eizi Toyoda
,
Hiroshi Niino
,
Kazuhisa Tsuboki
,
Ryuji Kimura
, and
Masanori Yoshizaki

Abstract

The characteristics and formation mechanism of an anticyclonic vortex street of meso-β scale, which appeared near a cold front around the Ryukyu Islands, Japan, on 11 April 1995, were examined by an analysis of observational data, a numerical simulation, and a linear stability theory.

The vortex street was generated near the midtroposphere on the north edge of a cloud band along the cold front. The diameter of individual vortices was 70 km, and the interval between vortices was 100–200 km. The phase speed of the vortices was nearly equal to the wind speed at the 400-hPa level.

The cloud band was accompanied by a weak wind region, in which the along-front wind was about 15 m s−1 weaker than that in the environment. A region of large anticyclonic horizontal shear (∼10−4 s−1) existed on the north side of this weak wind region.

To examine a detailed structure and formation mechanism of the weak wind region, a numerical simulation was performed. Regions of active convection and convective cloud bands, associated with a convergence line of the surface wind, were reproduced at the position where they were observed. The weak wind region accompanied by the cloud band was also reproduced. A budget analysis of the along-front momentum equation shows that the weak wind region was produced by vertical advection of horizontal momentum in the convective cloud band, which is resolved by the 15-km grid interval of the numerical model.

The stability of the simulated along-front wind and temperature fields near the weak wind region was examined by a linear theory. It is found that there exist a number of growing modes, the disturbance kinetic energy of which is supplied by the kinetic energy of the basic flow (i.e., a barotropic instability). The fastest growing mode has a maximum amplitude at 450 hPa and is confined to the region of 450 hPa ± 100 hPa. The wavelength and phase velocity of the fastest growing mode agree well with those of the observed vortex street.

Full access
Soichiro Hirano
,
Kosuke Ito
,
Hiroyuki Yamada
,
Satoki Tsujino
,
Kazuhisa Tsuboki
, and
Chun-Chieh Wu

Abstract

The sporadic formation of short-lived convective clouds in the eye of Tropical Cyclone (TC) Trami (2018) is investigated using dropsonde data and simulation results from a coupled atmosphere–ocean model. According to the satellite data, top height of the convective clouds exceeds 9 km above mean sea level, considerably taller than that of typical hub clouds (2–3 km). These clouds are located 10–30 km away from the TC center. Hence, these convective clouds are called deep eye clouds (DECs) in this study. The dropsonde data reveal an increase in relative humidity in the eye region during the formation of DECs. Short-lived convective clouds are simulated up to the middle troposphere in the eye region in the coupled model. Investigation of thermodynamic conditions shows a weakened low-level warm core and associated favorable conditions for convection in the eye region during the formation of DECs. DECs are formed after the weakening and outward displacement of convective heating within the eyewall. To elucidate the influence of the changes in convective heating within the eyewall on the formation of DECs, we calculate secondary circulation and associated adiabatic warming induced by convective heating within the eyewall using the Sawyer–Eliassen equation. In the eye region, weakening of subsidence and associated vertical potential temperature advection is observed as DECs are formed. This suggests that the weakening and outward displacement of convective heating within the eyewall create favorable conditions for the sporadic formation of DECs.

Open access
Satoki Tsujino
,
Kazuhisa Tsuboki
,
Hiroyuki Yamada
,
Tadayasu Ohigashi
,
Kosuke Ito
, and
Norio Nagahama

Abstract

Knowledge of the development and maintenance processes of double warm cores in tropical cyclones is important for full understanding of the dynamics of storm intensity changes. During its mature stage, Typhoon Lan (2017) had a clear double warm-core structure, which was observed by dropsondes. In this study, to investigate the intensification and maintenance of the double warm-core structure, a numerical simulation of the storm is performed with a cloud-resolving model and verified by dropsonde and satellite observations. A potential temperature budget and backward trajectories are diagnosed to examine intensification and maintenance processes in the simulated eye. The budget analysis indicates that, during the most rapidly intensifying stage, a double warm core is enhanced by axisymmetric subsidence warming in the eye. In the mature stage, upper-core warming is mostly canceled by ventilation due to vertical wind shear, but the lower core continues to warm by asymmetric advection, possibly associated with dynamical instability in the eyewall. The results raise a topic of interest: it is difficult to fully explain the axisymmetric subsidence warming process during the most rapidly intensifying stage by the dynamical response in an axisymmetric balanced vortex. The back-trajectory analysis indicates that the air mass associated with the subsidence is partly induced by inward acceleration in subgradient regions (unbalanced processes) in the eyewall.

Open access
Chung-Chieh Wang
,
Hung-Chi Kuo
,
Yu-Han Chen
,
Hsiao-Ling Huang
,
Chao-Hsuan Chung
, and
Kazuhisa Tsuboki

Abstract

Typhoon Morakot struck Taiwan during 6–9 August 2009, and it produced the highest rainfall (approaching 3000 mm) and caused the worst damage in the past 50 yr. Typhoon–monsoon flow interactions with mesoscale convection, the water vapor supply by the monsoon flow, and the slow moving speed of the storm are the main reasons for the record-breaking precipitation. Analysis of the typhoon track reveals that the steering flow, although indeed slow, still exceeded the typhoon moving speed by approximately 5 km h−1 (1 km h−1 = 0.28 m s−1) during the postlandfall period on 8 August, when the rainfall was the heaviest. The Cloud-Resolving Storm Simulator (CReSS) is used to study the dynamics of the slow storm motion toward the north-northwest upon leaving Taiwan. The control simulations with 3-km grid size compare favorably with the observations, including the track, slow speed, asymmetric precipitation pattern, mesoscale convection, and rainfall distribution over Taiwan. Sensitivity tests with reduced moisture content reveal that not only did the model rainfall decrease but also the typhoon translation speed increased. Specifically, the simulations consistently show a discernible impact on storm motion by as much as 50%, as the storms with full moisture move slower (~5 km h−1), while those with limited moisture (≤25%) move faster (~10 km h−1). Thus, in addition to a weak steering flow, the prolonged asymmetric precipitation in Typhoon Morakot also contributed to its very slow motion upon leaving Taiwan, and both lengthened the heavy-rainfall period and increased the total rainfall amount. The implications of a realistic representation of cloud microphysics from the standpoint of tropical cyclone track forecasts are also briefly discussed.

Full access