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Alexander Marshak
,
Yuri Knyazikhin
,
Keith D. Evans
, and
Warren J. Wiscombe

Abstract

A new method for retrieving cloud optical depth from ground-based measurements of zenith radiance in the red (RED) and near-infrared (NIR) spectral regions is introduced. Because zenith radiance does not have a one-to-one relationship with optical depth, it is absolutely impossible to use a monochromatic retrieval. On the other side, algebraic combinations of spectral radiances, such as normalized difference cloud index (NDCI), while largely removing nonuniqueness and the radiative effects of cloud inhomogeneity, can result in poor retrievals due to its insensitivity to cloud fraction. Instead, both RED and NIR radiances as points on the “RED versus NIR” plane are proposed to be used for retrieval. The proposed retrieval method is applied to Cimel measurements at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) site in Oklahoma. Cimel, a multichannel sun photometer, is a part of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET)—a ground-based network for monitoring aerosol optical properties. The results of retrieval are compared with the ones from microwave radiometer (MWR) and multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) located next to Cimel at the ARM site. In addition, the performance of the retrieval method is assessed using a fractal model of cloud inhomogeneity and broken cloudiness. The preliminary results look very promising both theoretically and from measurements.

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Cyrille N. Flamant
,
Geary K. Schwemmer
,
C. Laurence Korb
,
Keith D. Evans
, and
Stephen P. Palm

Abstract

Systematic error sources that require correction when making remote airborne measurements of the atmospheric pressure field in the lower troposphere, using an oxygen differential absorption lidar, are analyzed. A detailed analysis of this measurement technique is provided, which includes corrections for imprecise knowledge of the detector background level, the oxygen absorption line parameters, and variations in the laser output energy. In addition, the authors analyze other possible sources of systematic errors, including spectral effects related to aerosol and molecular scattering, water vapor vertical distribution, interference by rotational Raman scattering, and interference by isotopic oxygen lines.

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J. E. M. Goldsmith
,
Scott E. Bisson
,
Richard A. Ferrare
,
Keith D. Evans
,
David N. Whiteman
, and
S. H. Melfi

Raman lidar is a leading candidate for providing the detailed space- and time-resolved measurements of water vapor needed by a variety of atmospheric studies. Simultaneous measurements of atmospheric water vapor are described using two collocated Raman lidar systems. These lidar systems, developed at the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and Sandia National Laboratories, acquired approximately 12 hours of simultaneous water vapor data during three nights in November 1992 while the systems were collocated at the Goddard Space Flight Center. Although these lidar systems differ substantially in their design, measured water vapor profiles agreed within 0.15 g kg−1 between altitudes of 1 and 5 km. Comparisons with coincident radiosondes showed all instruments agreed within 0.2 g kg−1 in this same altitude range. Both lidars also clearly showed the advection of water vapor in the middle troposphere and the pronounced increase in water vapor in the nocturnal boundary layer that occurred during one night.

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