Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 2 of 2 items for :

  • Author or Editor: Kuor-Jier Joseph Yip x
  • Journal of Climate x
  • Refine by Access: Content accessible to me x
Clear All Modify Search
Kuor-Jier Joseph Yip
and
Gerald R. North

Abstract

Tropical wave phenomena have been examined in the last 520 days of two 15-year runs of a low-resolution general circulation model (CCMO). The model boundary conditions were simplified to all-land, perpetual equinox, and no topography. The two runs were for fixed soil moisture at 75% and 0% , the so-called “wet” and “dry” models. Both models develop well-defined ITCZs with low-level convergence erratically concentrated along the equator. Highly organized eastward-propagating waves are detectable in both models with different wave speeds depending on the presence of moisture. The wave amplitudes (in, e.g., vertical velocity) are many orders of magnitude stronger in the wet model. The waves have a definite transverse nature as precipitation (low-level convergence) patches tend to move systematically north and south across the equator. In the wet model the waves are distinctly nondispersive and the transit time for passage around the earth is about 50 days, consistent with the Madden–Julian frequency. The authors are also able to see most of the expected linear wave modes in spectral density plots in the frequency–wavenumber plant and compare them for the wet and dry cases.

Full access
Gerald R. North
,
Kuor-Jier Joseph Yip
,
Lai-Yung Leung
, and
Robert M. Chervin

Abstract

The concept of “forced” and “free” variations of large-scale surface temperature is examined by analyzing several long runs of the Community Climate Model (CCMO) with idealized boundary conditions and forcing. 1) The planet is all land with uniform sea-level topography and fixed soil moisture. 2) The planetary surface and prescribed ozone are reflection symmetric across the equator and there is no generation of snow. 3) The obliquity is set to zero so that the climate is for a perpetual equinox solar insolation (i.e., sun fixed over the equator). After examining some relevant aspects of the undisturbed climate (surface temperature field) such as temporal and spatial autocorrelations and the corresponding spectra, two types of changes in external forcing are imposed to study the model response: 1) sinusoidal changes of the solar constant (5%, 10%, 90%, and 40% amplitudes) at periods of 15 and 30 days (the latter is the autocorrelation time for the global average surface temperature) and 20% at 60 days and 2) insertion of steady heat sources (points and zonal bands) of variable strength at the surface. Then the temporal spectra of large scales for the periodically forced climate and the ensemble-averaged influence functions are examined for the point source disturbed climates. In each class of experiments the response of ensemble-averaged amplitudes was found to be proportional to the amplitude of the forcing. These results suggest that the lowest moments of the surface temperature field have a particularly simple dependence on forcing. Furthermore, the apparent finiteness of the variance spectrum at low frequencies suggests that estimates of long-term statistics are stable in this type of atmospheric general circulation model.

Full access