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  • Author or Editor: Lawrence D. Carey x
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Kelsey B. Thompson
,
Monte G. Bateman
, and
Lawrence D. Carey

Abstract

Lightning stroke data from both the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) and the Earth Networks Total Lightning Network (ENTLN) were compared to lightning group data from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) from 1 January 2010 through 30 June 2011. The region of study, from 39°S to 39°N latitude, chosen based on the orbit of LIS, and 164°E east to 17°W longitude, chosen to approximate the possible Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) longitude, was considered in its entirety and then divided into geographical subregions. Over this 18-month time period, WWLLN had an 11.0% entire region, 13.2% North American, 6.2% South American, 16.4% Atlantic Ocean, and 18.9% Pacific Ocean coincidence percent (CP) value. The ENTLN CP values were 28.5%, 63.3%, 2.2%, 3.0%, and 2.5%, respectively. During the 18 months, WWLLN CP values remained rather consistent but low and often higher over ocean than land; ENTLN CP values showed large spatial and temporal variability. With both networks, North America had less variability during summer months than winter months and higher CP values during winter months than summer months. The highest ENTLN CP values were found in the southeastern United States, especially in a semicircle that extended from central Oklahoma, through Texas, along the northern Gulf of Mexico, across southern Florida, and along the U.S. East Coast. There was no significant change in CP values over time; the lowest monthly North American ENTLN CP value was found in June 2011 at 48.1%, the last month analyzed. These findings are consistent with most ENTLN sensors being located in the United States.

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David A. Marks
,
David B. Wolff
,
Lawrence D. Carey
, and
Ali Tokay

Abstract

The dual-polarization weather radar on the Kwajalein Atoll in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (KPOL) is one of the only full-time (24/7) operational S-band dual-polarimetric (DP) radars in the tropics. Through the use of KPOL DP and disdrometer measurements from Kwajalein, quality control (QC) and reflectivity calibration techniques were developed and adapted for use. Data studies in light rain show that KPOL DP measurements are of sufficient quality for these applications. While the methodology for the development of such applications is well documented, the tuning of specific algorithms to the particular regime and observed raindrop size distributions requires a comprehensive testing and adjustment period. Presented are algorithm descriptions and results from five case studies in which QC and absolute reflectivity calibration were performed and assessed. Also described is a unique approach for calibrating the differential reflectivity field when vertically pointing observations are not available. Results show the following: 1) DP-based QC provides superior results compared to the legacy Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) QC algorithm (based on height and reflectivity thresholds), and 2) absolute reflectivity calibration can be performed using observations of light rain via a published differential phase–based integration technique; results are within ±1 dB compared to independent measurements. Future extension of these algorithms to upgraded Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) polarization diverse radars will benefit National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA’s) Precipitation Measurement Missions (PMM) validation programs.

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